《景观设计学》2017年第2期

作    者:陈昭(Zhao CHEN),邵钰涵(Yuhan SHAO),埃卡特•兰格(Eckart LANGE)等
类    别:景观
出 版 社:高等教育出版社有限公司
出版时间:2017年4月

导言 目录 作品信息 书评

俞孔坚•峨蔓的盐田
——《景观设计学》2017年第4期“主编寄语”
The Eman Salt Ponds
By Kongjian Yu



我走过海南的许多地方,而最让我梦回萦绕的一处景观是儋州峨蔓的盐田。在2017年二月至三月间,我便去了两次。它由一群被称为“盐丁”的人开凿并管理了1200余年。而如今,其历史面貌却在自然因素影响和人为破坏下,逐渐变得模糊不清,如果不加以保护和善待,这处景观将很快消失。

峨蔓的盐田丰富了我对于景观的理解。在荷兰语和法语语境中,景观(landskip或paysage)的古义是“农夫和他耕种的土地”,这近似于中文语境中的“田园”。而绵延千亩的峨蔓盐田则可以被理解为“盐丁和他的领地”。在这里,海水被引入红树林环绕的海滩,盐丁们巧妙利用阳光和砂石将海水不断浓缩,制成高浓度的卤水。随后,卤水被舀入晒盐台中爆晒蒸发,直至结晶成盐。晒盐台由坚硬的黑色玄武岩凿磨而成,形如砚台;同样由玄武岩构筑而成的储盐房,零星分布于盐田之上;一条由巨石铺就的栈道,蜿蜒穿梭于盐田之中。除了这些与盐的生产直接相关的景观元素外,还有镂刻在岩石上的盐神,盐丁们向他祈祷阳光和高温。最令人叹为观止的是矗立在盐田中央的一座金字塔石堆。因为繁重的晒盐工作需要男丁来承担,所以据说每有一位男孩降生,盐丁们便在石堆上添一块石头,日积月累成为了如今的高塔。虽没有玛雅金字塔雄伟,但其背后的故事却远比那些为神灵和君主而刻意堆砌的金字塔更富有意味。不远处的盐丁村清一色以黑色玄武岩为材料构建,菱形的石块砌成的山墙敦实而坚固,可耐住最强台风的考验。虽然整个村子建筑风格统一,但每一栋建筑都有自己的性格,甚至从岩石砌块的打磨程度,就能看出主人身份的差异。

在峨蔓的海边,盐丁们的居住、生产和生活与周边的自然景观浑然一体,构成了一处完整的文化景观。它是盐丁一族在严酷环境下的生存智慧、人性、情感、社会关系,以及一切人类文化过程的烙印,是阅读和理解其文化的鲜活档案库。

同样是制盐,不同地域的人们却形成了完全不同的技术和独特的景观。在西藏芒康的澜沧江干热河谷内,纳西族的盐民将卤水从河床中的盐井中取出,用木桶背到盐田里烤晒制盐。这里的盐田是由木头和泥土构筑的,层层叠叠地凌空架在澜沧江沿岸的悬崖绝壁之上。而潮湿多雨的四川自贡也拥有两千多年的采盐历史,发展出了一套令当代人惊叹的深井开采卤水、卤水蒸发浓缩和煎煮成盐的技术。一座座由竹子搭建的卤水提取塔和一片片由稻草搭建的晒盐棚,构成了蔚为壮观的生产性文化景观。

除却盐文化景观,稻田、茶园、果园、菜园、蔗园、鱼塘,乃至人们的居所,都是人类因适应自然而形成的文化的一系列表达方式。由于不同气候、地理条件所能够提供的原材料不同,人类发展了与各种自然条件相适应的方法和技术,并融入情感、价值观和审美观,形成了富有地域特色的文化景观。它们是生存的艺术,而非设计的景观。

这些文化景观也是人类认识自我、认识种群和民族的必不可少的素材。保护这些景观便是保护人类物种的文化多样性,其意义正如保护自然界的生物多样性一般。未来的环境存在诸多不确定性,对这些不确定环境的适应能力,决定了人类生存的几率和生活的品质。因此,对当代景观设计学—由职业设计师主导的、协调人与自然关系的学科和职业来说,过去的文化景观既表明了先人在适应独特自然环境的过程中的生产和生活智慧,同时也为解决全人类正面临的生存问题提供了参考,它们不仅是历史的遗产,更启迪着未来。




Among the places I have visited on Hainan Island, the salt ponds in Eman, Danzhou, is the landscape I most remember. In February and March 2017 I visited it twice. Originally exploited and managed by the “saltmen” for more than 1,200 years, the salt ponds are gradually fading because of natural forces and human exploitation. If not protected and treated well, this landscape will soon disappear.
The Eman ponds enriched my understanding of landscape. In Dutch and French, landscape (landskip or paysage) refers to the “farmer and his cultivated land,” which is closer to the Chinese “Tianyuan” or “field and garden.” Similarly, the Eman ponds are a landscape of the “salt man and his territory.” The sea water is channeled into the mangrove beach area. Clever use of sun and gravel by the salt men concentrates the seawater, forming it into high concentrated brine. The brine evaporates into crystal salt, while the sun drying table is chiseled and polished out of hard black basalt and shaped like an inkstone. The salt storage rooms, also made of basalt, are interspersed with the salt ponds and a paved walkway meanders through the ponds. There is also the salt god engraved on rocks, which the salt men pray to for sunshine and high temperature. The most amazing feature of the landscape is the standing stone pyramid in the center of the salt ponds. The pyramid was formed as the salt men stacked stones on the pile over time for each baby boy born in the area for that the heavy salt work was often borne by males. Although not as dramatic as the Mayan pyramids, the story behind it makes it far more meaningful than pyramids built only for gods and monarchs. Black basalt was also used as the building material, strong enough to withstand the strongest typhoon, in adjacent Salt Man Villages. Despite the uniform architectural style of the villages, each building had its own character, identifying the owner’s status by how well their rock blocks are burnished.
At the Eman seashore, the salt men’s dwelling, production and living are seamlessly integrated with the surrounding nature environment, forming a complete cultural landscape. It is an expression of their survival wisdom, humanity, experiences, social relations, and cultural processes in harsh environment. It is the vivid archives that helps us to read and understand the culture of the salt men.
Salt production varies between environments. In the dry-hot valley of the Lancang River in Mangkang, Tibet, brine is taken out through wells in the river bed and carried back to salt fields made of wood and clay, which are amazingly held up on the cliffs along the Lancang River, tier upon tier. In humid and rainy Zigong, Sichuan Province, salt is harvested through a combination of deep well brine mining, brine evaporation, and boiling. The bamboo brine extraction towers and straw salt sheds make a spectacular productive and cultural landscape.
In addition to salt cultural landscape, rice fields, tea gardens, orchards, vegetable gardens, sugar cane gardens, fish ponds, and homes are all expressions of culture formed while human continuously adapting to nature. Due to the differences in climate and geographic conditions, and the resulting varied local materials, mankind has developed various methods and techniques that are compatible with various natural conditions. And by incorporating emotions, values and aesthetics, they created cultural landscapes with rich regional characteristics. These are the art of survival, not designed landscapes.
These cultural landscapes are also indispensable materials for humans to know themselves, their population and their nation. To protect these landscapes is to protect the cultural diversity of the human species, the meaning of which being just as the protection of the biodiversity of nature. The ability to adapt to uncertain futures will determine the probability of human survival and their life quality. Contemporary landscape architecture, which is dominated by professional designers, is devoted to coordinating relationships between man and nature. To it, past cultural landscapes are a reflection of our ancestors’ wisdom of product and life adapting to unique natural environment, and an approach for addressing survival problems we are facing now. They are both the historical legacies and the key to the future.
Translated by   Sara JACOBS   Angus ZHANG

主编寄语
峨蔓的盐田(俞孔坚)

论文
场所与空间:景观人类学研究概览(陈昭)
定义地方本土性(邵钰涵,埃卡特•兰格,凯文•斯韦茨,刘滨谊)
沙盒——基于计算机辅助建造和增强现实技术的风景园林规划设计操作平台(冯潇,蔡凌豪,王文韬)

观点与评论
作为“调解人”的景观设计师——文化人类学视角的解读(河合洋尚)
人类学与社会学视角下的城市设计与乡村建设(于长江)
树的时代(卡梅隆•巴瑞戴尔)
果树栽培:巴哈马埃克苏马群岛应用性实地研究报告(利亚特•瑞辛,加雷斯•多尔蒂)

主题实践
贵州中关村乡村建设实践(傅英斌、张浩然、闫璐)
西班牙卡尔德斯德蒙特维镇温泉果园灌溉系统修复(CICLICA事务所[空间•社区•生态]、CAVAA建筑事务所)

探索与过程
巴布亚之累(维罗妮卡•库苏马亚提)
寻迹无形之城(王博,潘律)

简讯


【中文刊名】《景观设计学》——文化人类学与景观设计
【英文刊名】Cultural Anthropology and Landscape Architecture
【作者】陈昭(Zhao CHEN),邵钰涵(Yuhan SHAO),埃卡特•兰格(Eckart LANGE)等
【出版社】高等教育出版社有限公司
【页码】172页彩色印刷
【刊号】ISSN 2096-336X
【出版日期】2017年4月
【定价】58.00元

 

场所与空间:景观人类学研究概览
Place and Space:A Review of Landscape Anthropology Research
作者:陈昭(Zhao CHEN)

摘要
景观人类学是20世纪90年代在欧美出现的新的学科分支。笔者将从三个方面来展开“文化人类学与景观设计”话题。首先对“‘文化人类学’是什么”做出简要介绍,为不同学科背景的读者提供一个基本的学科印象。其次,对本文中的“景观设计”一词,做出必要的限定和澄清,确保形成讨论的基本共识。接着,重点介绍文化人类学基于“景观”的研究的基本视角——“场所”与“空间”。“场所”视角重点关注“当地人”赋予其所处环境以文化意义的过程,以及人们的生活实践如何构建景观。“空间”视角关注学者、企业家、规划师等文化表象的主体如何表达地方文化,这种文化表象又如何影响空间的生产。本文重点梳理了以上两个视角的研究,并介绍了最新的研究动态,最后落脚“景观设计”的文化内涵,展望未来文化人类学与景观设计结合之可能。

关键词
景观人类学;空间;场所;表象

Abstract
Landscape Anthropology is a new disciplinary branch of Anthropology emerged in European and American academia during the 1990s. The current review develops the topic of“Cultural Anthropology and Landscape Architecture”from three perspectives. Firstly, it provides a brief introduction to the definition of Cultural Anthropology to familiarize interdisciplinary readers. Secondly, it provides necessary conceptual clarification to the term “景观设计 (Landscape Architecture).” Thirdly, it provides a review of the research approaches to the study of landscape in the field of Cultural Anthropology: place and space.The “place” perspective focuses on how local people endow cultural meanings onto their surrounding environment, and how people’s routine activities construct landscape. The “space” perspective considers how academics, entrepreneurs, designers, and other main actors in cultural representation, express local culture, and how such representation influences the social production of space. The current paper emphasizes research on these two points and reviews recent studies. Finally, it looks ahead to the possible cooperation between the study of Cultural Anthropology and Landscape Architecture.

Key words
Landscape Anthropology; Space; Place; Representation


定义地方本土性
Defining Local Identity
作者:邵钰涵,埃卡特•兰格,凯文•斯韦茨,刘滨谊 (Yuhan SHAO, Eckart LANGE, Kevin THWAITES, Binyi LIU)

摘要
本文的研究目的在于提出一个关于地方本土性的正式定义,以厘清景观研究领域中的这一概念。本文首先介绍了景观研究中不同层面的特性,随后通过回溯与之相关的概念,梳理其相互关系与共同点,从而消除对于地方本土性内涵的混淆。本文的第三部分对这些概念的共同点予以了提取、归纳和重组,从而形成了一个新框架,以呈现可促进形成地方本土性的元素,并提出了对于地方本土性的正式定义。文本亦总结了就这一正式定义与框架对于景观研究与实践的意义。

关键词
地方本土性;景观特性;场所感知

Abstract
This study aims at providing a formal definition on local identity to clarify the confusion in the field of landscape study. The study first introduces different levels of identities in landscape research. Then the second part reviews relevant definitions to identify their relations and common factors to clear confusions on local identity. The third extracts, formalizes and reorganizes the common factors into a new framework to represent elements that contribute to local identity and form a formal definition of local identity. The paper also concludes their important meanings to both landscape research and practice.

Key words
Local Identity; Landscape Identity; Sense of Place


协同合作缓解中国水资源问题
Collaborative Strategies to Alleviate China's Water Resource Problems
作者:王浩Hao WANG

摘要
我国水资源面临着供需矛盾突出、水旱灾害频发、水污染严重、水生态系统退化等严峻问题。这些问题的解决需要仰赖多学科、多领域的研究合作,以及跨行业、跨部门的协同工作。与水资源研究相关的各个专业应采用协同创新的模式推进彼此间的有效沟通,注重从理论上交互融合、从方法上协作借鉴,深入开展不同学科间的交流。通过对目前广泛开展的海绵城市建设工作进行评述,作者指出应在政策法规、技术标准、体制机制等方面推动海绵城市建设中的协同。

关键词
水资源;海绵城市;协同;生态海绵流域

Abstract
China’s water resources are facing serious problems including uneven supply and demand, frequent droughts and floods, severe water pollution, and water ecosystem degradation. To solve these problems, multi-disciplinary and multi-field research cooperation, as well as multi-professional and multi-departmental collaboration are required. The different disciplines that study water resources should adopt new collaborative models that promote effective communication between professionals, and that focus on interactive integration in theory and methodology to achieve disciplinary exchange. A thorough review of Sponge City programs draws attention to policies, regulations, technical standards, and institutional mechanisms needed for this exchange.

Key words
Water Resources; Sponge City; Collaboration; Ecological Sponge River Basin


沙盒——基于计算机辅助建造和增强现实技术的风景园林规划设计操作平台
Sandbox — An Operation Platform for Landscape Architecture Planning and Design Based on Computer Aided Manufacturing and Augmented Reality Technology
作者:冯潇,蔡凌豪,王文韬Xiao FENG, Linghao CAI, Wentao WANG

摘要
在规划设计过程中,用以表达基地原始信息、承载规划设计行为的操作界面,就是规划设计操作平台。随着数字化技术的进步,一种基于计算机辅助建造技术(CAM)和增强现实技术(AR)的操作平台逐渐发展起来,这就是“沙盒”。本文阐述了“沙盒”平台的技术背景,简要回顾了平台的发展历程。作者以北京林业大学风景园林规划设计研究院数字景观研究中心制作的沙盒为例,介绍了“沙盒”平台的架构,并着重展示了其数字信息分析模块的功能及运作原理。“沙盒”是一种能够精确还原现场、直观承载手工设计操作,并进行实时人机互动的四维操作平台。

关键词
规划设计;操作平台;沙盒;计算机辅助建造;增强现实

Abstract
A planning and design operating platform is an operational interface which is used in the process of planning and design to demonstrate the base information of an existing site, and to facilitate planning and design activities. With the improvement of digital technology, an operating platform called Sandbox has been developed, based on Computer Aided Manufacturing and Augmented Reality technology. This paper introduces the technical background of the Sandbox platform, and briefly reviews its development. The author takes the sandbox produced by Digital Landscape Research Center of the Landscape Architecture Planning and Design Institute of Beijing Forestry University as an example, to explain the framework of the Sandbox platform, and to emphatically show the functions and operational principles of its digital information analysis module. The Sandbox is a four-dimensional operation platform that precisely represents the site, directly carries out manual design and operation, and realizes real-time human-computer interaction.

Key words
Planning and Design; Operating Platform; Sandbox; Computer Aided Manufacturing; Augmented Reality


协同设计与创新管理——温岭东部新区海绵城市建设经验谈
Collaborative Design and Innovative Management — The Experience of Sponge City Development inthe Eastern New District of Wenling City
作者:佘依爽Yishuang SHE

摘要
如何因地制宜地落实国务院办公厅于2015年10月印发的《关于推进海绵城市建设的指导意见》,是现阶段海绵城市建设的热点问题。浙江省温岭市东部新区自2010年启动城市建设实践起,即率先形成了以“水”为核心的绿色基础设施雏形,搭建了完整的城市生态建设框架,系统地在全区域范围内进行了多维度的雨洪管理实践。本文采访并总结了开发方、城市管理机构、施工方、景观设计师等与该地海绵城市建设直接相关人群的实践经验与心路历程,得出优先规划绿色基础设施、敢为人先的突破性理念、系统化的解决方案,以及执行到位的精细化管理是项目实施效果较好的基本原因。

关键词
海绵城市建设;绿色基础设施;协同设计;管理

Abstract
In current sponge city development, the question of how to implement plans according to local circumstances and the Guiding Opinions on Promoting Sponge City Development, issued in October 2015 by the State Council, has become a hot topic. Starting with urban development in 2010, the Eastern New District of Wenling City, Zhejiang Province has taken the lead in building an early phase of green infrastructure that centers on “water” to establish a complete framework of urban ecological development and carry out various practices of city-wide stormwater management systematically. This article summarizes the practical experiences and conceptual procedures of developers, urban administrative agencies, contractors, landscape architects, and other people who are directly related to the development of this sponge city. It is believed that the prioritized planning of green infrastructure, the boldness to be a pioneer, the systematic solutions, and the proper execution of tactful management are the fundamental reasons for the successful implementation results.

Key words
Sponge City Development; Green Infrastructure; Collaborative Design; Management


作为“调解人”的景观设计师——文化人类学视角的解读
Landscape Architect as “Mediator” — A cultural Anthropological Perspective
作者:河合洋尚Hironao KAWAI

摘要
近年来,文化人类学开始关注景观,景观人类学领域由此兴起。本文以作者在广东省的调研经验为基础,介绍了景观人类学的基本视角与调研方法,提出了通过立足当地居民的社会文化背景来把握景观设计的方法,为景观设计师提供了文化人类学角度的探索。

关键词
景观人类学;族群景观;能动体;调解人

Abstract
In recent years, anthropologists have started paying attention to landscape, resulting in the emergence of landscape anthropology. Grounded in the author’s investigative experience in Guangdong Province, China, this paper introduces a basic perspective and methodology of landscape anthropology. The author proposes methods to guide landscape design based on the social and cultural conditions of local residents, and provides explorations conducted for landscape architects from the perspective of cultural anthropology.

Key words
Landscape Anthropology; Ethnic Landscape; Agency; Mediator


人类学与社会学视角下的城市设计与乡村建设
Urban Design and Rural Construction from the Perspectives of Anthropology and Sociology
作者:于长江 Changjiang YU

摘要
在本文中,受访者首先就人类学、社会学和文化人类学的学科定义、关注重点、研究范围之间的区别和联系予以了阐述,随后论证了人类学与社会学知识或观点对于景观设计实践及教育的意义。并从人类学与社会学视角出发,探讨了古村落保护、乡村地方性、社区认同感等议题,为景观设计师提供了审视问题的新思路、新方法。其强调空间具有社会人文属性,呼吁设计师时刻将这一属性纳入考量,并提出人类学与社会学及景观设计相结合的跨学科发展方向在未来应予以关注。

关键词
人类学;社会学;人文;认同感;乡村建设

Abstract
The interviewee first clarifies distinctions and links between anthropology, sociology, and cultural anthropology through discipline definitions, areas of focus, and scope of study. Next, he demonstrates the significance of anthropological and sociological knowledge or points of view in landscape architectural practice and education. From the perspectives of anthropology and sociology, he discusses issues that include traditional village protection, rural local identity and community identity, and provides landscape architects with new ideas and methods to examine such challenges. He emphasizes social and cultural attributes of space, encouraging designers to always take these attributes into consideration and put forward interdisciplinary development for anthropology and sociology to be combined with landscape architecture.

Key words
Anthropology; Sociology; Humanities; Identity; Rural Construction


树的时代Age of the Tree
作者:卡梅隆•巴瑞戴尔Cameron BARRADALE
Project Manager and Landscape Architect, SOM

摘要
自人类出现伊始,我们与生态环境——或者更具体地说,与树——之间的联系,一直是关乎人类生存与传统的核心问题。而随着近几个世纪的工业化、城镇化、无序拓张,以及技术的兴起,这种人与树木之间的核心的共生关系已不复存在。一种新的趋势随即形成,许多发达国家,甚至是发展中国家更加重视人类建筑领域中技术和环境的发展,而对大自然每天无偿提供给我们的便利置若罔闻。
面对极端的环境、日益紧张的城市状况和不断削弱的人与自然之间的联系,重新遍植树木是一种最为简单有效且适用于城市的补救途径。
我们正在进入一个新的“树的时代”。在此背景下,我们必须将树视为新兴城市的重要元素之一,重新审视人与树的关系。简而言之,打造一个健康、强健、成熟的林冠体系,应当成为未来所有开发的重点,且绝无例外。我们今日的共同努力必将造福于子孙后代。

关键词
树;城市;城市冠层;森林;自然

Abstract
Throughout the history of human existence, the connection to ecology and — more specifically trees — has been central to human survival and tradition. But over several recent centuries of industrialization, urbanization, sprawl and the rise of technology, this central and symbiotic relationship has been lost. A trend has been established in which much of the developed — and developing — world now places a greater emphasis on the technologies and environment of the built realm and less upon the natural amenities provided to us for free every day.
The single most effective — and urban — remedy for extreme environments, increasingly stressful urban conditions and declining connection between humans and nature is the reemergence of the tree.
We are entering a new “Age of the Tree” where we must reconsider our relationship to the tree, as one of the focal elements in this emerging urban reality. Simply stated, creating a healthy, robust and mature tree canopy must become a critical focal point for all future development — without exception. Our future generations will thank us as they reap tremendous dividends for our collective efforts today.

Key words
Trees; City; Urban Canopy; Forest; Nature

果树栽培:巴哈马埃克苏马群岛应用性实地研究报告
Cultivating Fruit:An Account of Applied Field Research in the Exuma Archipelago, The Bahamas
作者:利亚特•瑞辛Liat RACIN加雷斯•多尔蒂Gareth DOHERTY

摘要
该研究以可食用水果生产为对象,是一项更大规模的多年期应用研究项目的一部分,项目探索了景观设计、生态学和设计层面的方法,旨在保护和发扬巴哈马埃克苏马群岛在资源管理、经济发展、社会管理和社会文化等方面的传统,同时,为群岛的未来发展提供可持续的解决方案。其借助专为该项目而设计的实地调查过程,运用人类学和参与式方法,与当地社区、政府、教育者和环境本身建立紧密联系,促进了各方对设计方案和决策过程的了解。在参与数据收集的过程中,市民可以就研究课题进行自我学习,并深入了解所研究的内容和研究方式。这一案例研究表明,审慎的、兼容性强的初步设计十分重要,而参与式方法则可以鼓励和吸引当地社区积极参与到课题调研中。该调查结果将为今后该地区和其他地区更为深入的与食品相关的研究奠定基础。

关键词
群岛;交流;参与;实地调查;果树

Abstract
A study on edible fruit production was conducted as one part of a larger multi-year applied research project exploring approaches to landscape architecture, ecology and design that conserve and celebrate traditions of resource management, economic development, governance, and socio-cultural issues of the Bahamian archipelago of Exuma, while proposing sustainable solutions for the future development of the islands. The project draws on a distinctive fieldwork process, designed for the project, which adapts anthropological and participatory methods to engage with local communities, government, educators, and the environment itself to inform design proposals and decision-making. Participation in the collection of data can mean that citizens educate themselves in the research topic, and get involved in what gets researched and how. This case study demonstrates the importance of careful, inclusive preliminary design and the ability of participatory processes to motivate and entice local communities to actively engage in the topic of examination. The findings should help prepare the ground for more intensive future food-related investigations there and elsewhere.

Key words
Archipelago; Communication; Engagement; Fieldwork; Fruit Trees


上海市苏州河两岸城市设计
Shanghai Suzhou Creek Urban Design
作者:Sasaki设计事务所Sasaki

摘要
Sasaki设计事务所在上海市苏州河两岸设计国际竞赛中拔得头筹。苏州河曾是上海市的水路运输要道之一,但近几十年却遭受了极其严重的污染,且日渐为人所遗忘。得益于亚洲开发银行的支持,现今的苏州河水体已日渐恢复洁净,并将重拾其在城市中的核心地位。

关键词
苏州河;城市复兴;公共领域;适应性再利用

Abstract
Sasaki was selected as the winning team for the international competition to redesign Suzhou Creek in Shanghai. Suzhou Creek was historically one of the city’s most vital water routes, but in recent decades suffered from unspeakable pollution and neglect. With a loan from the Asian Development Bank, the waterway is now clean and ready to reclaim its role as a centerpiece of the city.

Key words
Suzhou Creek; Urban Revitalization; Public Realm; Adaptive Reuse


贵州中关村乡村建设实践
Rural Construction Practices in Zhongguan VILLAGE, Guizhou Province
作者:傅英斌、张浩然、闫璐 / Yingbin FU, Haoran ZHANG, Lu YAN

摘要
在当下热火朝天的乡村建设运动大潮下,不同背景的人士纷纷试图以各自视角阐述和尝试乡村复兴的可能性。与传统乡村建设过程中的片面“化妆式”环境整治不同,贵州省桐梓县中关村从顶层制度设计入手,结合空间规划、社区营造方式,试图探索一种新型的乡村综合建设发展模式:通过制度建立、乡村产业转型、居民生活改善、公共空间营造、文化修复等策略多管齐下,全方位解决乡村问题。

关键词
乡村建设;协同设计;参与式营建;金融合作社

Abstract
In the backdrop of the current rural construction campaign in China, people with different backgrounds have endeavored to explore the possibility of rural revival from their own perspectives. Contrary to a simple environmental remediation approach used in traditional rural construction processes, Zhongguan Village in Tongzi County, Guizhou Province adopted a top-level design system that combines spatial planning with community establishment using external funds and other means. We have developed a new model for rural construction and development that comprehensively solves rural problems using multiple approaches that include establishing regulations, transformation of rural industries, improving living conditions for residents, the construction of public space, cultural restoration, etc.

Key words
Rural Construction; Collaborative Design; Participative Construction; Financial Cooperative


西班牙卡尔德斯德蒙特维镇温泉果园灌溉系统修复
Recovery of the Irrigation System at the Thermal Orchards in Caldes de Montbui, Spain
作者:CICLICA事务所[空间•社区•生态]、CAVAA建筑事务所 /CICLICA [space • community • ecology], CAVAA Architects

摘要
位于巴塞罗那大都会区名为“低地果园”的温泉花园因废水污染而面临严峻的环境恶化问题。温泉果园灌溉系统修复项目恢复了场地的园艺景观,构建了全新的可由灌溉社区自主管理的公共空间,彰显了作为非物质文化遗产的传统水资源管理措施在实现城市可持续发展过程中的重要价值。

关键词
社会代谢;城市空间;水文循环;参与式行动研究

Abstract
The Hortes de Baix thermal gardens, located in the metropolitan region of Barcelona, had been deteriorated by wastewater contamination. The project recovers the horticultural landscape as a new self-managed open public space empowering the irrigation community and recognizing the key value of traditional water management as intangible heritage towards urban sustainability.

Key words
Social Metabolism; Urban Space; Water Cycle; Participatory Action Research


巴布亚之累
The Great Colonial Roads
作者:维罗妮卡•库苏马亚提Veronika KUSUMARYATI

摘要
巴布亚省和西巴布亚省位于印度尼西亚偏远且高度边缘化的地区,二省因共同的自我认同而被统称为西巴布亚地区。在这里,公路建设不只是对技术的追求或实现进步与发展的途径。西巴布亚地区地形崎岖而多山,至少有261个巴布亚族群因此而长期与世隔绝,这里也是世界上最后一片还未被外界记录、绘制并侵占的土地。跨巴布亚公路的建设不仅可以带来发展,同时也是记录、绘制和侵占这片难以管制区域的政治手段。作为人类学家,我有幸能够穿过这条崎岖难行、脆弱不堪的公路,认识到引领我至此的道路与因其所促生的工程建造痕迹和诸项资源开采活动之间的关联。

关键词
公路;发展;殖民主义;榨取

Abstract
In West Papua, a self-identifying term that refers to the provinces of Papua and West Papua, the remote and highly marginalized provinces of Indonesia, road construction does not merely represent a technological ambition or a means to deliver progress and development. With its rugged and mountainous terrain, West Papua has kept more than 261 Papuan ethnic groups isolated for long periods of time and made it one of the last territories in the world to be charted, mapped, and occupied by foreign forces. The construction of the Trans-Papua Highway should be seen in this way; it is meant as a conduit for progress as well as a political tool to chart, map and occupy the ungovernable. As an anthropologist, I passed through this difficult and fragile highway and drew a connection between the roads that I have taken, traces that the construction left and multiple possibilities of extraction that it allows.

Key words
Road; Development; Colonialism; Extraction


寻迹无形之城
Traces of an Invisible City
作者:王博,潘律Bo WANG Lu PAN

摘要
影片《寻迹无形之城》(2016)以香港的城市空间为窗口,展现了全球化和资本主义所隐藏的逻辑,以及世界级城市当前的历史变革。它探究了香港的一系列城市景观,以展现其视觉存在、功能和所有权之间的紧张关系,并揭示了城市公共空间是如何被建造、使用、所有和解读的。作为城市公共生活发生的主要场所,公共空间在影片中被视为连接城市过去、现在和未来的节点。着眼于全球、本地和分界线的空间的三个平行而又相互交织的章节贯穿了影片的始末。“展览”章节取材于在香港会议展览中心举办的巴塞尔艺术展。作为世界上最大的艺术展之一,它以自内向外的方式,通过建筑的空间和功能、访客及空间的使用后状态等展现其象征性的和切实意义上的空洞。“街道”章节结合对历史的回顾,探讨了香港公共空间近年来的戏剧性转变。“北面”章节讲述了在香港-深圳分界线地区的一种视觉反转,在处于快速城镇化进程中的社会主义中国的衬托下,香港的农田反倒成了一种历史景观。

关键词
香港;公共空间;身份特征;分界线;有形/无形

Abstract
Traces of an Invisible City (2016) presents urban space in Hong Kong as a vivid showcase of the hidden logics of globalization and capitalism, and of the historical changes currently occurring in world cities. It examines a series of urban landscapes in Hong Kong to illustrate the tension among their visual existence, function, and ownership, and how the city’s public space has been constructed, used, owned, and interpreted. Public spaces, which are primary loci where public life happen, are regarded here as nodal points that connect the city’s past, present and future. The film contains three chapters that are parallel to but interwoven with each other: global, local, and divided space. “The exhibition” observes Art Basel, one of the largest art fairs in the world, held at Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Center in an inside-out manner — through the architecture’s space and function, the visitors and the post-usage conditions of the space to reveal its symbolic and literal void. “The Streets” explores the dramatic transformations of Hong Kong’s public space in recent years, blended with flashbacks of history. “The North Side” juxtaposes the Hong Kong-Shenzhen division area in their visual reversal, where Hong Kong’s agricultural landscape became a spectacle from the rapidly urbanized side of the socialist China.

Key words
Hong Kong; Public Space; Identity; Visible / Invisible