《景观设计学》2017年第4期

作    者:祝明建(Mingjian ZHU),陈显尧(Xianyao CHEN),李国胜(Guosheng LI)等
类    别:景观
出 版 社:高等教育出版社有限公司
出版时间:2017年8月

导言 目录 作品信息 书评

俞孔坚•海岸带景观
——《景观设计学》2017年第4期“主编寄语”
Coastal Landscapes
By Kongjian Yu


海岸线(带)是最清晰而又最不确定的景观。据《圣经•旧约》记载,上帝在创造了昼夜、空气之后,在第三天创造了海洋和陆地的分界线:

“神说,天下的水要聚在一处,使旱地露出来。事就这样成了。”

于是,世界就一分为二,水聚为海,旱地为陆。在中国的五行中,水、土被认为是完全对立和相克的两种元素。因此,当两者在空间上相遇时,一条清晰的边界产生了——这便是海岸线。每一条海岸线在世界地图上都清晰可辨;且对许多生命来说,这条线更是明确的生命底线,跨越它,便意味着死亡。

很久以前,我就有一个梦想——沿海岸线徒步行走,一只脚踏在水里,另一只脚踏在陆上,就这样走遍祖国的海岸线。渐渐地我发现,这个梦想太遥远。因为在现实中,海岸线是随潮涨潮落而变化的,正如人不能两次踏进同一条河流,人也不可能两次踏上同一条海陆分界线。我们在地图上看到的海岸线,在现实中却是一条难以界定的海陆过渡带——一条非确定的线。如果从学术定义来认识这条带,其宽度可达几公里,甚至上百公里不等。

海岸线(带)的不确定性还体现在其处在海洋与陆地之间不间断的、此消彼长的变幻之中:海水的侵蚀和搬运带来岸线的流变;火山爆发带来的熔浆塑造出新的岸线;黄河入海口每年都向海洋延伸数公里;地震和海啸会瞬间摧毁防波堤,将陆地与海水的边界重新划定……这些都使得海岸线更加变幻莫测。古人用“沧海桑田”一词来描绘这种变化,可谓再生动不过!

海岸线(带)是地球上一条虽丰富多样但也异常脆弱的景观带。这里是海陆两种元素交融“相生”,而非“相克”的交错带,其处于一种精妙的平衡状态中。这种交错和平衡体现在水量、盐分和营养物浓度有规律的变化之中,以及海陆之间空气的流通、温度的变化和降雨量的分布之中。因而产生了与之相适应的独特而丰富的生物群落:在潮间带繁衍生长的红树林;随潮水涨落而迁移的贝类生物和鱼类;在陆地产卵、海里生活的海龟;以及在海陆之间穿行的海鸟。正如海龟会在相同的繁殖季爬上同一海岸来产卵,也会因为微妙的水温和夜光的差异调整其上岸的时间,海陆之间这些看似变化莫测的状态,实际上处于一种以千万年为计量单位的动态的平衡之中,其微妙程度超乎人类的想象。

海岸线(带)是最浪漫也是最危险的景观。我常常幻想这样的场景:因为气候和环境的巨大变化,一群直立人离开可怖的草原,选择沿着海岸带走出非洲,沿途星空皎洁、水面如镜、沙滩平坦、视野开阔、气温宜人,食物丰富且容易获得。这种久远的对于海岸带的偏好,在人类的基因里烙下了深深的印记。海岸带景观往往与海滩、阳光联系在一起,是浪漫的代名词。这种浪漫产生于人们对未知彼岸和海底世界的憧憬,爱情、财富及长生不老是与海洋相关的永恒主题,如安徒生童话中的美人鱼、中国神话中的海底龙宫。但这种浪漫的泡沫往往被现实的残酷所打破——在2004年的圣诞节假期,印度洋海啸吞噬了在热带海岸享受浪漫假日的20余万人的生命。而年复一年发生的热带风暴所造成的生命财产损失,每年都在以惊人速度增长。

放眼当下和未来,由于全球范围内的气候变化,海岸带景观不仅面临着更多的风险和悲剧,其最值得珍惜的特质也在不断被损害。沿海防波堤早已打破了自然状态下海陆交融的微妙平衡,成为海水与陆地间“你死我活”的边界,大量环境敏感型生命已不复存在;来自陆地的污水和垃圾源源不断地倾入大海,使海陆交错带中的生命逐渐沉寂;六车道的沿海快速公路,将原本充满想象的、变化莫测的海岸带变得清晰明了、索然无味;千篇一律的海滩度假酒店更是扼杀了人们对于海岸的浪漫憧憬。

如果说人类只有一个地球的话,那么人类也只有一条海岸带!让我们珍惜海岸带的清晰和不确定性,懂得其稀有和脆弱性,善待其丰富的自然和生命存在,多留下一些浪漫的远方!


Coastlines (and coastal zones) are simultaneously the clearest and most uncertain landscapes. In the Old Testament of the Bible, God created the divide between land and sea on the third day, proceeded only after the creation of light and darkness, and firmament:

“And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so.”

In this origin story the world is divided into two, water gathered for the sea and dry land for land. In China, of the Wu Xing (Five Elements), earth and water are opposites meant to restrain each other. Thus, when they meet in space, the boundary between earth and water is clear; it is the coastline. This unmistakable divide is starkly mapped. For people and many other forms of life, this line is the edge between surviving and perishing. 

I had a dream long time ago that I could walk along the coastline with one foot in the water and the other on land, and finally walk over the entire coastline of China, my motherland. I knew this dream was unrealistic: the coastline is ever-changing with the fluctuation of tides, and it is impossible to set foot on the same boundary between water and land twice. The coastline that we understand as a clear boundary through maps is an uncertain transitional zone between sea and land. This line (or belt) can reach a width of a few meters or several kilometers according to its academic definition. 

The uncertainty of the coastlines (and coastal zones) is reflected in the changes between water and land. The coastline can change through erosion and sediment deposits, from fossils deposited through volcanic eruption, from alluvial through estuary extension — as is the case with the Yellow River estuary which extends several kilometers to the sea every year. Earthquakes, tsunamis, and other shocks can instantly destroy floodwalls and redefine the area between land and sea. These phenomena make the coastline change unpredictable, as an old saying goes, “With time, seas change into croplands and croplands change into seas.”

Coastlines (and coastal zones) are also the most diverse and fragile landscapes on Earth. They are not the datum through which the opposition of earth and water are measured, but an interwoven zone of reinforcement for the two elements. It is a delicately balanced space reflected in regular changes in water volume, concentrations of salt and nutrients, the flow of wind, and changes in the temperature and rainfall. These variations produce distinctive and rich biocenoses: intertidal mangroves, tidal migrations of shellfish and fish, sea turtles that lay eggs on the land and live in the sea, and seabirds that shuttle between sea and land. These seemingly unpredictable states of neither land nor sea are dynamic processes that are balanced if measured in millions of years. Their subtlety — such as turtles that lay their eggs on the same beaches at the same time every year but adjust their timing based on light and temperature changes — is beyond human imagination. 

Coastlines (and coastal zones) are also the most romantic and most dangerous landscapes. I often imagine how the Homo erectus had to leave the dry grassland and head towards the coast, due to the huge impact by climate and environmental changes. Along their way, there were open view of clean and star-bright night, mirror-like waters, flat beach, pleasant temperatures, and plenty of readily-available food. Humans have long shown a preference for the temperate environments of the coastal zone, for which we associated these spaces with the beach, sunshine, and a romancing of the unknown other shore and underwater world. Love, treasure, and longevity are the eternal themes of the sea, from Hans Christian Andersen’s fairytales to the Dragon Palace in Chinese myths. These romantic bubbles are often broken by cruel tragedies. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami killed more than two hundred thousand people along a tropical coast, and year after year the loss of life and property brought about by tropical storms is growing. 

Today and into the future — due to global climate change — the most cherished qualities of the coastal landscapes are also at risk of being lost. Coastal breakwaters which have mediated the delicate balance of the land and sea are threatened and a large number of environmentally sensitive species have already been destroyed; lives living in the coastal zone also disappear because of sewage, trash, and other waste dumped into the sea; multi-lane expressways made the unpredictable coastal zone once full of imagination become unmistakably boring; and the artificial structures on the beach with a same looking have broken people’s romantic imagination of the coast we desired to experience. 

We only have one earth and we only have one coastline. Let us cherish the clarity and uncertainty of the coast, to learn from both its rarity and vulnerability, to treat well its natural resources and diverse creatures, and to let it remain a romantic other shore. 

Translated by Sara JACOBS Angus ZHANG

主编寄语
海岸带景观(俞孔坚)

论文
适应海平面上升的生物多样性保护规划:美国佛罗里达州瓜纳-特罗马特-马坦萨斯国家级河口研究保护区案例(祝明建,奚雪松,李胭胭)

观点与评论
变化的气候与变化的城市设计策略(陈显尧)
中国沿海地区生态环境现状与保护(李国胜)
21世纪海上丝绸之路对中国沿海城市的影响(刘保奎)
应对气候变化的沿海社区与生态系统弹性设计(杰弗里•卡尼)

主题实践
2050:能源的征程(德克•西蒙兹,贾斯珀•哈根伯格,约佩•维尔)
动态景观的适应性规划:阿拉巴马州海湾州立公园总体规划(吉娜•福特,詹姆斯•迈纳)
候鸟机场——天津临港经济开发区鸟类保护湿地公园项目设计(McGregor Coxall设计事务所)
有生命的防波堤——纽约沿海绿色基础设施(SCAPE景观设计公司)
重返大海:西班牙基尔马斯水产景观修复(邢晓晔)

探索与过程
潮升:边界抗争指南(亚历桑德拉•梅)
重拾地理氛围(大卫•德尔•沃尔斯)

简讯



【中文刊名】《景观设计学》——沿海景观
【英文刊名】Coastal Landscape
【作者】祝明建(Mingjian ZHU),陈显尧(Xianyao CHEN),李国胜(Guosheng LI)等
【出版社】高等教育出版社有限公司
【页码】162页彩色印刷
【刊号】ISSN 2096-336X
【出版日期】2017年8月
【定价】58.00元
 

适应海平面上升的生物多样性保护规划:美国佛罗里达州瓜纳-特罗马特-马坦萨斯国家级河口研究保护区案例
Biodiversity Conservation Planning Adaptive to Sea Level Rise: The Case of the Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve in Florida
作者:祝明建,奚雪松,李胭胭 Mingjian ZHU, Xuesong XI, Yanyan LI


摘要
目前,海平面上升成为了全球沿海低洼地区生物多样性保护最大的威胁之一,为了应对这一挑战,我们亟需对沿海保护区加以调整。本文介绍了位于美国佛罗里达州的瓜纳-特罗马特-马坦萨斯国家级河口研究保护区的案例,该项目通过运用综合保护规划模型来辨识适应海平面上升的优先保护区。结合美国案例的经验,本文继而对在中国沿海城市和地区开展适应海平面上升的生物多样性保护规划提出了相关建议。

关键词
海平面上升;适应性规划;生物多样性;沿海地区;模拟

Abstract
Currently, sea level rise becomes one of the biggest threats to biodiversity conservation in low-lying coastal areas, and coastal conservation areas need to be optimized to the rising sea level. This paper introduces the case of the Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve in Florida, which shows that the key conservation areas adaptive to sea level rise can be identified by modeling with integrated protection planning. Combining the American case’s lessons, the paper further comes up with suggestions on biodiversity protection adaptive to sea level rise for china’s coastal cities and regions.

Key words
Sea Level Rise; Adaptive Planning; Biodiversity; Coastal Region; Simulation


变化的气候与变化的城市设计策略
Changing Climate and Changing Strategies for Urban Design
作者:陈显尧 Xianyao CHEN

摘要
全球气候变化对人类社会和经济建设产生了广泛而深刻的影响。作为气候变化最显著的特征之一,海平面上升会加剧沿海地区的风暴潮、海岸侵蚀、海水入侵等海洋灾害的发生,严重威胁沿海地区的社会经济发展。本次受访者为全球气候变化领域的专家,其在访谈中指出海洋在全球气候系统中占据主导地位,在全球气候变化过程中亦发挥着重要作用,并进一步分析了全球海平面上升的非同步性和非平均性。受访者指出全球气候变化的基础研究成果还有待转换到气候学、灾害预报与防控、城市规划与设计等应用学科领域,以为沿海地区城市建设的风险评估和管理提供指导。

关键词
海洋;全球气候变化;海平面上升;城市设计

Abstract
Global climate change has a broad and profound impact on human social and economic development. As one of the most distinguishing observations of climate change, sea level rise exacerbates marine disasters such as storm surge, coastal erosion, and seawater intrusion, which threaten the socio-economic development of coastal areas. As an expert on global climate change, the interviewee noted that ocean plays an absolutely dominant role in global climate system, and further emphasized the non-synchronicity and non-uniformity of global sea level rise. He also pointed out that basic research on global climate change needs to be more extensively applied in climatology, disaster prediction and control, urban planning and design, and other disciplines, in order to provide scientific support on risk assessment and management for urban construction of coastal regions.

Key words
Ocean; Global Climate Change; Sea Level Rise; Urban Design


中国沿海地区生态环境现状与保护
Ecological Situation and Protection of China’s Coastal Areas
作者:李国胜 Guosheng LI

摘要
近几十年来,随着沿海地区人类活动(例如城镇化、围垦、人工养殖、固滩、石油开采等)强度的逐渐增加,中国海岸带的自然岸线在逐年减少,人工海岸比例已超过40%。这种人工化的高强度开发对海岸带自然景观和生态环境造成了强烈干扰。该访谈介绍了目前中国海岸带生态环境的整体状况,以及近年来几大三角洲自然景观和生态环境的转变,强调了沿海地区应在经济发展与环境保护之间寻求平衡,并应针对全球气候变暖、海平面上升等问题,展开全国尺度的海岸带生态监测与评估。

关键词
海岸带;中国;三角洲;围垦;生态保护

Abstract
As coastal urbanization, reclamation, aquaculture, shoal-reinforcement, and oil exploitation have intensified over the past few decades, China’s natural coastline has shrunk. The man-made coastline now accounts for more than 40% of the total national coastline. Such intensive development has disturbed the natural landscape and ecosystem of the coastal zones. This interview introduces the overall ecological situation of China’s coastal areas including changes in the major delta areas of China. It stresses that development of coastal areas should be coordinated to best balance economic growth and ecological protection. It encourages the establishment of a nation-wide ecological monitoring and assessment mechanism that will help respond to pressing issues including climate change and sea level rise.

Key words
Coastal Zone; China; Delta; Reclamation; Ecological Protection


21世纪海上丝绸之路对中国沿海城市的影响
The Impacts of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road on Chinese Coastal Cities
作者:刘保奎 Baokui LIU

摘要
自2013年习近平主席提出“21世纪海上丝绸之路”的构想以来,一系列相关政策的出台对中国沿海城镇的发展产生了深远影响。21世纪海上丝绸之路是一个没有限定边界的互利共赢、开放包容的新型合作平台,将以点(城市和港口)带面,从线到片,逐步形成区域大合作。21世纪海上丝绸之路为沿海地区的发展带来了新动力,激发着区域集聚态势、产业组织模式、人口流动趋势、生态保护形势等方面发生深刻变化。

关键词
沿海城市;城市群;产业;人口流动;沿海生态

Abstract
Since the introduction of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road initiative by President Xi Jinping in 2013, a series of relevant policies have profoundly influenced the development of coastal cities in China. The 21st Century Maritime Silk Road promises an open and inclusive new cooperation platform. It will help form a regional cooperation, which is driven by the key coastal cities and coastal economic zones. The 21st Century Maritime Silk Road brings new impetus to the development of coastal areas, leading to profound changes in regional agglomeration, industrial organization patterns, population migration, ecological protection, and other aspects.

Key words
Coastal City; Urban Agglomeration; Industry; Population Migration; Coastal Ecology


应对气候变化的沿海社区与生态系统弹性设计
The Design of Resilient Coastal Communities and Ecosystems Responding to Climate Changes
作者:杰弗里•卡尼 Jeffery CARNEY


摘要
近年来,风暴、土地流失、海平面上升等问题频发,沿海地区面临着日益严峻的挑战。路易斯安那州立大学沿海地区可持续性研究所(CSS)自2009年成立以来便致力于通过创新策略提升沿海社区与生态系统的弹性。本次采访聚焦于CSS的团队建设方式、跨学科协作,以及沿海区域大尺度规划设计策略等方面。CSS负责人杰弗里•卡尼提出,气候变化已成为沿海社区规划设计中的重要考虑因素,其影响甚至涵盖内陆地区,因而迫切需要正视这一全球性问题。卡尼认为,景观设计师的基本职责就是探索如何将复杂的生态系统融入人类环境之中,唯有运用系统性思维以及促进各方协作,才能实现更加富有成效且更具责任感的设计和发展建设。

关键词
沿海地区可持续性研究所;海岸修复;沿海生态系统保护;气候变化;协作

Abstract
In recent years, challenges of storms, land loss and sea level rise are getting more and more serious in the coastal areas. Since its founding in 2009, the Coastal Sustainability Studio (CSS) of Louisiana State University has been trying to use innovative approaches to foster resilient coastal communities and ecosystems. This interview focuses on CSS’s way of building teams, transdisciplinary collaboration, and their practices on large-scale planning in coastal areas, etc. As is stated by Jeffery Carney, director of CSS, climate change is increasingly recognized as a huge factor in coastal community design and is affecting inland regions as well, which has become a global issue to be seriously concerned. Carney also suggests that it is the duty of landscape architects to put the complexities of the ecosystem into a human context. Only with the application of systems thinking and with collaboration with a diverse team, can we realize design and development in productive and responsible ways.

Key words
Coastal Sustainability Studio; Coastal Restoration; Coastal Ecosystem Preservation; Climate Changes; Collaboration


2050:能源的征程
2050: An Energetic Odyssey
作者:德克•西蒙兹,贾斯珀•哈根伯格,约佩•维尔 Dirk SIJMONS, Jasper HUGTENBURG, Joppe VEUL

摘要
“2050:能源的征程”是一项针对西欧北海及周边地区的设计性研究,主要探究在该区域大规模开采、运输和储存可再生能源的可能性、机遇和空间影响。该项目展示了北海在实现《巴黎协定》中经全球通过的“将全球平均气温较工业化前水平升高幅度控制在2℃以内”的目标中扮演的角色。
欧洲承诺,截至2050年,将实现温室气体减排80%~95%。受2016年荷兰鹿特丹国际建筑双年展委托,H+N+S景观设计事务所与Ecofys能源与气候咨询公司、Tungsten Pro多媒体制作公司联合推出了基于可再生能源利用的北海区域规划。该规划概述出项目未来可能的实际情况,及其对自然、渔业、港口发展、经济和娱乐休闲的影响。

关键词
北海;气候变化;沿海;能源;海上风能

Abstract
“2050: An Energetic Odyssey” is a research by design on the possibilities, opportunities, and spatial implications of the realisation of large-scale harvesting, transportation and storage of renewable energy sources on and around the North Sea. This project demonstrates the role the North Sea could play in meeting the globally agreed two-degree target.
Europe has committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 by 80% ~ 95%. Commissioned by the Internationale Architectuur Biennale Rotterdam 2016 (IABR 2016), H+N+S made a plan for the North Sea together with Ecofys and Tungsten Pro, in which renewable energy sources are utilised. This plan outlines how that might look in practical terms and what the effects might be for nature, fishery, harbour development, economies, and recreation.

Key words
North Sea; Climate Change; Coastal; Energy; Offshore Wind


动态景观的适应性规划:阿拉巴马州海湾州立公园总体规划
Adaptive Planning for a Dynamic Landscape: Alabama’s Gulf State Park Master Plan
作者:吉娜•福特,詹姆斯•迈纳 Gina FORD, James MINER

摘要
墨西哥湾州立公园总体规划是对于阿拉巴马海岸一处面积约25km2的公园提出的战略框架,旨在为日益复杂的环境提出新的开发模式。通过整合动态景观、新兴的适应性管理技术与包含早期行动计划的规划过程,该项目提出了一项新型总体规划,其实施计划和战略规划并存,且实时相互反馈。本文将讨论总体规划的框架和愿景、审查早期行动要素,同时阐释参与式规划与设计的价值。

关键词
弹性;总体规划;沿海;公园;生态

Abstract
The Gulf State Park Master Plan — a strategic framework for this beloved 6,150-acre park in coastal Alabama — offers a new model for addressing increasingly complex environments. The dynamism of the landscape, its context of emerging adaptive management techniques, and the need to accommodate built-in early action strategies allowed for a new kind of master plan, one where implementation and strategy co-existed and informed one another in real-time. We provide an overview of the master plan vision, examine its early action elements, and explain the value of engaging in planning and design implementation concurrently.

Key words
Resilience; Master Planning; Coastal; Park; Ecology


候鸟机场——天津临港经济开发区鸟类保护湿地公园项目设计
Bird Airport — Tianjin Lingang Bird Sanctuary Wetland Park Design
作者:McGregor Coxall设计事务所 McGregor Coxall

摘要
东亚-澳大利西亚候鸟迁飞区(EAAF)是全球九大贯穿南北半球的候鸟迁飞区之一,每年都有全球五分之一的濒危水鸟在这条迁飞区上飞行。 在沿海地区城市蓬勃发展的大环境下,鸟类栖息地与觅食场地逐渐消失,鸟类数量急剧下降。为了增加中国渤海湾核心鸟类栖息地的数量,McGregor Coxall设计事务所计划在临港经济开发区的一块填海围垦地上建立一处110hm2的鸟类保护湿地公园,并提出世界上首个“候鸟机场”设计。由于部分鸟类在迁飞途中会不间断飞行超过11 000km、长达10天不进食饮水,位于渤海湾上的“候鸟机场”将是EAAF上鸟类进行补给和繁衍的至关重要的一站,对中国、澳大利亚,乃至全球生态系统具有重要意义。

关键词
候鸟机场;东亚-澳大利西亚候鸟迁飞区;沿海景观;湿地;自然教育

Abstract
Each year more than 50 million birds make the return journey from the Antarctic reaches to the northern tip of the earth along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway (EAAF) seeking food and shelter. As one of the nine global north-south fly ways, the EAAF is now the world’s most threatened due to the loss of bird foraging habitat by coastal urbanization. One in five globally threatened water birds including the Black-Tailed Godwit fly the EAAF but they are suffering rapid declines in population.
In a bid to increase critical bird habitat on the shores of the Bohai Bay in China, the Asian Development Bank encouraged the Port of Tianjin to embark upon an international design competition for a wetland bird sanctuary on a degraded land fill site in Lingang. McGregor Coxall won the first prize in the competition with a proposal of establishing the world’s first migratory “Bird Airport” — a 110-hectare wetland park and bird sanctuary. With some birds flying non-stop for more than 11,000 km and up to 10 days without food or water, the airport will be a crucial re-fueling and breeding stop on the EAAF.

Key words
Bird Airport; East Asian-Australasian Flyway; Coastal Landscape; Wetland; Natural Education


有生命的防波堤——纽约沿海绿色基础设施
Living Breakwaters — Coastal Infrastructure in New York
作者:SCAPE景观设计公司 SCAPE Landscape Architecture DPC

摘要
我们如何将公众与其所处环境更直接地联系起来?我们如何在预测海平面上升和日益频发的风暴的同时修复水体,并将人们与海岸相连?“有生命的防波堤”是一个创新性的沿海绿色基础设施项目,是美国住房和城市发展部“为重建而设计”竞赛的获奖项目之一,意在为上述问题提供解决方案。该项目由纽约州政府风暴灾后恢复办公室实施,并获得了6 000万美元的社区发展补助灾后恢复专项资金。“有生命的防波堤”项目为拉里坦湾和斯塔滕岛量身设计,将水上基础设施与在岸教育和外展服务相结合,有助于降低灾害风险、提高生态系统稳定性,同时促进管理能力的培养。

关键词
生态设计;降低灾害风险;沿海基础设施;公众参与;滨水区;弹性

Abstract
How can we connect citizens more directly with their immediate environment? How can we anticipate rising sea levels and increasingly intense storms, but also revive waterbodies, and connect people to the shore? Living Breakwaters is an innovative coastal green infrastructure project that was selected as one of the winning projects of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Rebuild by Design competition that aims to answer these questions. The project is being implemented by the New York State Governor’s Office of Storm Recovery with 60 million USD of Community Development Block Grant Disaster Recovery (CDBG-DR) funding. Planned for the Raritan Bay and Staten Island, Living Breakwaters links in-water infrastructure with on-shore education and outreach, to help reduce risk, enhance ecosystems and foster stewardship.

Key words
Ecological Design; Risk Reduction; Coastal Infrastructure; Civic Engagement; Waterfront; Resiliency


重返大海:西班牙基尔马斯水产景观修复
Embracing Rías: Recovering the Aqua-scape in Quilmas, Spain
作者:邢晓晔 Xiaoye Xing


摘要
西班牙西海岸加利西亚地区拥有绵长曲折的海岸线和众多入海口三角洲,渔业与水产养殖业一直以来都是当地主要的支柱产业。基尔马斯是坐落于这一地区海岸线上的仅有170名居民的小镇,风景优美,生物种类丰富,有着悠久的渔业历史。但由于交通不便,近年来基尔马斯的旅游业并没有得到长足发展。一座巨大的多宝鱼养殖场占领了二分之一的海岸,不仅成为生态环境的潜在威胁,且未能为当地提供更多的工作岗位。养殖场意图在基尔马斯继续扩张,借此机会,当地政府与其签订了合作协议,要求养殖场必须部分投入公共空间建设,才能够获得扩张的许可。该项目以促进养殖场转型成环境友好型企业为出发点,探索了经济、生态与景观并行的水产景观形式,并将文化遗产与自然遗产相结合,从而促进基尔马斯旅游观光产业的发展。

关键词
水产养殖;水产景观;多营养层级综合养殖系统;海岸

Abstract
The Galician Coast, located in the west coast of Spain, is characterized by the long, sinuous coastline with complex hydrological configuration, where fishery and aquaculture are the pillar industry. Quilmas is a small village of only 170 inhabitants on the coastline. Though with a long history of aquaculture and beautiful natural scenery, tourism is not well developed here due to limited transportation. However, an alien turbot farm dominants half of the shoreline in Quilmas, becoming the potential threat to local ecosystem, without providing adequate job opportunities. The farm still intends to expand in Quilmas. Thus the municipal made the best of this chance and reached an agreement that the farm has to partially devote to public space to get the permission. This project starts with transforming the farm to an eco-friendly plant, and aims to establish various aqua-scape typologies that integrate economics, ecology and landscape, and also to stimulate tourism by integrating cultural heritage and natural heritage.

Key words
Aquaculture; Aqua-scape; Integrated Multi-tropic Aquaculture System; Coast


潮升:边界抗争指南
Rise: A Guide to Boundary Resistance
作者:亚历桑德拉•梅 Alexandra MEI

摘要
指南特有的形式展现出景观设计作为一种具有包容性、分享性以及社会参与性实践的潜能。在这一项目中,指南成为美国原住民沿海社区挑战由美国陆军工程兵团为岛屿划定的边界线的媒介。由于海平面上升,聚居于美国路易斯安那州让-查尔斯岛上的比洛克西-奇蒂马查-乔克托部落,被迫离开他们长期栖居的岛屿,到北方更远的内陆寻找新的安身之所。考虑到未来50年间平均高水位标记值将随海平面上升而逐渐升高,岛屿可能会渐渐转变为国有资产,而岛民则会失去对其的所有权。为了应对这一问题,项目以指南的形式,建议岛屿原住民采取行动抵抗用于划定岛屿边界的现有高水位标记方式,通过遮蔽与模糊岛屿边界来维护部落对其土地的所有权,使部落居民迁离该岛后依旧可以返回这片曾经的家园。通过仔细斟酌表现形式、灵活把控设计过程,该项目探讨了社区、抗争以及“为他者设计”等议题。在该项目中,景观设计使我们得以对土地边界线的划定过程展开批判性审视,指南的应用则有助于将岛民及其智慧纳入设计过程中。

关键词
边界;社区;参与性;施为者;身份认同

Abstract
The format of the guidebook carries potential for landscape architecture as a practice of inclusion, participation and social engagement. Here, the guidebook is a medium for a native American coastal community to challenge the boundary lines placed onto its island by the Army Corps of Engineers. The Biloxi Chitimacha Choctaw tribe on the Isle de Jean Charles, Louisiana, forced to leave their island for a land-locked parcel farther north because of sea level rise, will eventually lose their island to state property as this mark rises with the sea in the next fifty years. In response, the project uses the guidebook to suggest acts of community resistance against this water mark, obscuring and blurring the boundary so that the tribe will maintain ownership of their land and have a reason to return after they leave. Through conscious choice of representation style and sensitivity to the process of design, the project provoked questions of community, resistance, and “design for the other.” Here, the role of landscape architecture is critical of the boundaries placed onto land, and the uses of the guidebook can help to embrace community engagement and agency.

Key words
Boundary; Community; Participation; Agency; Identity


重拾地理氛围
[Re]Learning Geographical Atmospheres
作者:大卫•德尔•沃尔斯 David del VALLS

摘要
不同于当前的建筑实践,本项目更类似于一种大型的研究调查,通过一种基于制图研究的个人化手法来构想场域特定艺术。渔业传统悠久的伊斯雷塔是一个存在于城市、地域及景观等定义之间、边界模糊不清的小型社区。当地发展受到康菲达尔海湾保护区和拉斯帕尔玛斯市域的约束,居民依赖有限的环境资源勉强糊口。我们不仅身处于“环境”之中,亦依赖“环境”维持生存。事实上,“环境”通常并非是由边界明确的具有连续性的空间,而是由诸多片段、碎片或分散的地块组成。这些片段承载着人们对于伊斯雷塔社区、对于拉斯帕尔玛斯这座城市,以及对于当地景观的情感,讲述着这片海岸的往昔历史与悠悠乡愁。本项目聚焦于这些碎片空间和构成地域景观的古老元素,试图以一种最小干预的方式将所有物质化元素通过去物质化的途径融入当地景观,从而与整个地域建立起一种对话。

关键词
景观;遗产;海岸线;氛围;领域;环境

Abstract
Different from current architectural practice, this project emerged in parallel to a larger research investigation and takes a personal approach to site-specific artistic work through a cartographic exploration. The Isleta is a small fishing neighbourhood located in an undefined space between the city, territory and landscape. A growth limit set by Confital’s protected area and the city of Las Palmas has forced people to live hand to mouth by limiting access to the environment. We immerse ourselves in the environment, but we also need it to survive. It is not continuous, it is made of pieces, fragments, and patchworks. These pieces are the essential parts of the feeling and the life of the neighbourhood, the city, and the landscape, telling stories about the past and nostalgia of the shore. The project looks at these spaces, the landscape of pre-existing elements, and focuses on establishing a dialogue with the whole territory, with all the elements that materialized and dematerializing into the landscape through minimum interventions.


Key words
Landscape; Heritage; Coastline; Atmospheres; Territory; Environment