《景观设计学》2017年第5期

作    者:周详(Xiang ZHOU),栾博(Bo LUAN),余猛(Meng YU)等
类    别:景观
出 版 社:高等教育出版社有限公司
出版时间:2017年10月

导言 目录 作品信息 书评

俞孔坚•生态修复:一场改善中国城市和实现美丽中国梦的“运动”
——《景观设计学》2017年第5期“主编寄语”
Ecological Restoration: A Movement to Improve Chinese Cities and Realize the Beautiful China Dream
By Kongjian Yu


在中国,当某种全国性、系统性且与人民生活密切相关的不良状态发生时,似乎都需要通过一场全民性的、自上而下的行动,即“运动”来迅速解决或制止某种错误行为的蔓延。而离开中国的城乡现实背景,我们则难以理解 “海绵城市建设”和“城市双修(城市修补和生态修复)”等全国性的、运动式的行动。从这个意义上来说,生态修复运动在中国的发生是积极的,也是必要的。我们需要关注的是,在这样的运动中,景观专业人员应当处于何种立场、发挥哪些作用。

中国的海绵城市建设和城市双修运动均源于中央政府对于蔓延的城市病的警觉。当全国一半以上的人口都居住在城市之中,城市生态和环境问题所引发的百姓的普遍不满,将成为影响社会安定和国家安全的重大因素。因此,在住房和城乡建设部的推动下,一场全国性的城市双修运动就此展开,海南省三亚市被设立为首个试点城市。本人作为这场运动的见证者和参与者,有必要对中国现阶段的生态修复过程做出客观记录,以供后人在进行相关研究时作为参考:

2012年11月8日,在中国共产党第十八次全国代表大会上,首次提出“美丽中国建设”这一执政理念,强调“把生态文明建设放在突出地位,融入经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设各方面和全过程”。

2013年7月20日,习近平总书记向生态文明贵阳国际论坛年会致贺,在名为《携手共建生态良好的地球美好家园》的发言中指出:“走向生态文明新时代,建设美丽中国,是实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦的重要内容。”至此,美丽中国建设与实现中国梦的关系被清晰地描绘了出来。

2013年11月15日,习总书记在对《中共中央关于全面深化改革若干重大问题的决定》做出说明时指出:“山水林田湖是一个生命共同体,人的命脉在田,田的命脉在水,水的命脉在山,山的命脉在土,土的命脉在树。用途管制和生态修复必须遵循自然规律……由一个部门负责领土范围内所有国土空间用途管制职责,对山水林田湖进行统一保护、统一修复是十分必要的。”至此,生态修复成为了美丽中国建设的必要工作。

2013年12月12日,习总书记在中央城镇化工作会议上指出:“要依托现有山水脉络等独特风光,让城市融入大自然,让居民望得见山、看得见水、记得住乡愁。”“城市规划建设的每个细节都要考虑对自然的影响,更不要打破自然系统。为什么这么多城市缺水?一个重要原因是水泥地太多,把能够涵养水源的林地、草地、湖泊、湿地给占用了,切断了自然的水循环,雨水来了,只能当作污水排走,地下水越抽越少……解决城市缺水问题,必须顺应自然。比如,在提升城市排水系统时要优先考虑把有限的雨水留下来,优先考虑更多利用自然力量排水,建设自然积存、自然渗透、自然净化的海绵城市。”在这里,海绵城市建设被作为城市生态修复的关键措施提出。

2014年2月,《住房和城乡建设部城市建设司2014年工作要点》一文中明确提出:“改善城镇人居生态环境,切实加强城市综合管理,预防和治理‘城市病’,推进城镇化健康发展” “加快研究建设海绵型城市的政策措施”。随后,共计16个城市入选第一批海绵城市建设试点城市。至此,作为中央意志的贯彻和执行部门,住建部展开了实质性的行动。

2015年4月11~12日,住建部时任部长陈政高考察海南省,并在三亚提出了开展“生态修复、城市修补”的设想,与时任三亚市委书记张琦达成共识,将三亚作为试点城市。张书记表示,城市双修是三亚最大的民生工程,将举全市之力,做好试点工作。至此,生态修复被落实为改善人民生活和实现美丽中国梦的全民运动。 

2015年12月20~21日,中央城市工作会议召开。习总书记在会上发表重要讲话,他强调,“坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,坚持人民城市为人民……城市发展要把握好生产空间、生活空间、生态空间的内在联系,实现生产空间集约高效、生活空间宜居适度、生态空间山清水秀……要大力开展生态修复,让城市再现绿水青山。”住建部在三亚等地的调研和预热得到了中央的支持,为全国性的生态修复和海绵城市建设铺平了道路。

2016年12月10日,全国生态修复城市修补工作现场会在三亚召开。历经一年半的三亚城市双修试点工程验收,三亚红树林公园、东岸湿地公园等城市生态修复项目亮相。三亚市生态环境状况得以改善,土地经济价值显著提升(以东岸湿地公园为例,其带动周边房地产价值在一年内提升了150%)。会议之后,全国各城市的政府决策者参观了三亚城市双修项目的成果,并将学习经验带回各地。紧接着,一系列城市双修项目陆续建立,一场全国性的城市双修运动就此展开。

剖析三亚生态修复试点和全国的生态修复运动,我们可以看到,在中国现有体制下,中央执政为民、实现美丽中国梦的国家意志,如何由一个城市的试点经验转化为千百个城市具体的民生改善运动,并通过国家机器,将亿万人民动员起来,使城市不良状态迅速改变。而在这一过程中,景观专业人员应采用正确的理念和方法来引导和帮助决策者,确保这个善意的运动尽可能地走在正确的轨道上。

In China, national and top-down “movements” seem to be necessary to promptly address adverse and systematic events which are closely related to people’s life. Were they discussed without the context of China’s urban and rural communities, it is difficult to understand the history and development of these types of movements, such as the “Sponge City Construction” and “Urban Remediation and Ecological Restoration.” The movement of ecological restoration has been positive and necessary in China, and the role and contribution of landscape architect in these movements continue to evolve.

The movements of Sponge City Construction and Urban Remediation and Ecological Restoration are driven by the central government’s awareness of environmental problems in urban areas. As over 50% of the total population lives in urban spaces, criticism and dissatisfaction about urban ecological and environmental issues will begin to threaten social stability and national security. In response to this concern, the nationwide Urban Remediation and Ecological Restoration movement was launched with support from the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development (MOHURD). Sanya in Hainan Province was selected as the first pilot city that provides me, a participant in the movement, an opportunity to objectively record current ecological restoration processes in China.

On November 8, 2012, the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China approved the “Beautiful China Construction” program, which emphasized eco-civilization construction, alongside economic, political, cultural, and social development. 

On July 20, 2013, General Secretary Xi Jinping made a speech at the Eco Forum Global Annual Conference in Guiyang in which he pointed out that to build the Beautiful China in the era of eco-civilization is significant to achieving the great rejuvenation of China. The key role of Beautiful China Construction to the realization of China’s rejuvenation was emphasized by the central government. 

Later, on November 15, 2013, in the document of Explanatory Notes for the Decision of the CCCPC on Some Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Deepening the Reform, General Secretary Xi expounded the importance of the mountains, rivers, forests, farmlands, and lakes to a life community. He argues that the spaces in which humans survive are interdependent; humans depend on farmlands, the farmlands on rivers, the rivers on mountains, the mountains on lands, and the lands on trees. He further pointed out that “land use regulation and ecological restoration must respect the laws of Nature…. A new centralized governmental agency should be set up to lead, manage, and coordinate the affairs related to the usage of the entire territory of China, carrying out unified natural resources protection and restoration programs at a national scale.” Thereby, significance and necessity of ecological restoration in Beautiful China Construction was underlined again with a clear administrative vision.

On December 12, 2013, on the Central Urbanization Work Conference, General Secretary Xi pointed out the urgent need to integrate cities with their natural environment in support of existing landscapes, “letting people see mountain, see water, and remember the nostalgia.” Moreover, he emphasized that in urban planning and construction, natural systems should be carefully conserved, rather than destroyed. “Breaking natural systems during urban construction, such as excessive concrete flooring, which causes decreases in woodlands, grasslands, lakes, and wetlands has become a core reason for urban water shortages. When natural water circulation is blocked, new rainwater contributes to urban flooding and is drained as sewage while unwisely pumping groundwater for daily supplies, causing huge resource waste and abuse….” To solve the problem of water shortage in cities, urban designers and landscape architects must comply with natural topography and vegetation. For example, to conserve stormwater, the Sponge City model helps store, infiltrate and purify rainwater. For this reason, Sponge City construction has become a key strategy in urban ecological restoration.

In February 2014, the Work Focus of Urban Construction Division of MOHURD again proposed to improve ecological urban inhabitation, to strengthen integrated urban management, to prevent and manage urban environmental problems, to promote healthy urbanization, and to accelerate research on policies and strategies for Sponge City Construction. Subsequently, sixteen Sponge City pilot locations were selected. It can be seen as a substantive action of the central government in implementing the movement.

In April 2015, Zhenggao Chen, the Minister of MOHURD, proposed advancing the idea of “Urban Remediation and Ecological Restoration” during a visit to Hainan Province. The city of Sanya was selected as a pilot location for exploring the idea. Qi Zhang, Party Secretary of Sanya, has stated that this pilot project will significantly influence overall wellbeing of the city, and encourage participation from all citizens. Ecological restoration has been regarded as an approach to improve people’s living standards and to realize the vision of Beautiful China with public engagement.

In December 2015, General Secretary Xi made a speech at the Central Urban Work Conference, which stressed sticking to people-oriented urban development as a way to balance efficient and intensive production, comfortable living, and beautiful ecological environments. “Making a sound living environment visible and functional in the city,” what he noted. The research and pilot project led by MOHURD in Sanya have received support from the central government, and the project is supposed to be a prime paradigm for nationwide ecological restoration and Sponge City Construction. 

Finally, on December 10, 2016, the Conference of National Ecological Restoration and Urban Remediation was held in Sanya in celebration of the pilot program’s achievements. After the one-and-a-half-year pilot project in Sanya, several urban ecological restoration projects emerged, including the Sanya Mangrove Park and the East Coast Wetland Park. With these projects, the ecological and economic environment of Sanya has greatly improved. Construction of the East Coast Wetland Park has increased surrounding real estate price by 150%, for example. Municipal leaders who visited Sanya’s pilot projects brought ideas and strategies back to their home cities, and a series of Ecological Restoration and Urban Remediation projects have been launched throughout the country. 

The Sanya pilot project is an example of the national ecological restoration movement, demonstrating the central government’s vision for improving people’s living quality and realizing the Beautiful China Dream. This dream can be achieved through the gradual development of pilot projects in hundreds of Chinese cities, and through state regulation and public engagement. Landscape architects have an important role to play in assisting municipal leaders and decision makers with appropriate ideas and approaches of ecological restoration to promote the national movement.

Translated by Sara JACOBS Angus ZHANG

主编寄语
生态修复:一场改善中国城市和实现美丽中国梦的“运动”(俞孔坚)

论文
日本街区保全型社区营造的发展与实践(周详)
场地尺度绿色基础设施的协同设计——以咸阳渭柳湿地公园生态修复设计为例(栾博,王鑫,金越延,柴民伟,胡春明)

观点与评论
快速城镇化背景下的城中村与老旧小区改造(余猛)
Mapping工作坊:重新解读城市更新与日常生活的关系(何志森)
全球气候变化背景下的棕地修复(尼尔•科克伍德)

主题实践
创建生态的城市栖息地——芝加哥北岛公园(Studio Gang设计事务所)
运行的生产性景观:常德市城头山大遗址公园生态修复与景观设计(耿苒,邵飞,张亚奇)
澳大利亚阿德莱德市鲍顿主公园(澳派景观设计工作室)
都市走廊的可持续都市主义:德克萨斯州休斯顿10号园区实证型城市设计(金埈铉,盖伦•纽曼,封赫婧,杰雷米•梅里尔,朴钟薰,卞佳荷)
波兰波兹南市马耳他艺术节临时公共空间(Starzak Strebicki设计事务所)
弹性搭建——首尔解放村商业街区微更新设计(吕小辉,徐夕然,张旸,贾静)

探索与过程
禁足之境:演进的自然遗产与衰败的灾难遗迹(陈煦斌)
乔木之外(玛丽安娜•西凯拉,伊莎贝尔•施密特,亚历山大•桑派奥,阿玛利亚•罗布雷多)

简讯

【中文刊名】《景观设计学》——生态修复与城市生活
【英文刊名】Ecological Restoration and Better Urban Life
【作者】周详(Xiang ZHOU),栾博(Bo LUAN),余猛(Meng YU)等
【出版社】高等教育出版社有限公司
【页码】176页彩色印刷
【刊号】ISSN 2096-336X
【出版日期】2017年10月
【定价】58.00元
 

日本街区保全型社区营造的发展与实践
Development and Practices of Neighborhood Conservation-Based Community BUILDING in Japan
作者:周详 Xiang ZHOU

摘要
社区营造强调从社会、政治和文化的角度理解街区的价值。街区保全型社区营造作为其中一种主要的营造方式,是日本历史街区保护从静态保存向动态保全转变过程中的创举。文章首先从日本历史风貌保护制度的流变入手,讨论日本历史环境的保护对象从单体到全域的演进过程,以及街区保全型社区营造产生的方式。其次,文章以八女市福岛地区为例研究公众参与街区保全型社区营造的途径,旨在发掘街区保全视角下日本社区营造对中国当代历史街区保护和开发的启示意义。最后,文章认为强调公众参与和地方赋权,鼓励和推动民间团体的介入是当前语境下中国历史街区实现物质和文化的保护与再生的应由之路。

关键词
历史街区;街区保全制度;公众参与;街区保全型社区营造

Abstract
Community building aims to emphasize and celebrate social, political, and cultural value of neighborhoods. As a major way in the neighborhood conservation in Japan, neighborhood conservation-based community building was generated in the process of historic neighborhood protection developing from static preservation to dynamic conservation. Starting with a review on the history of the protection system of traditional quality in Japan, this paper puts its focus on the evolution of the protected targets — from only single objects to whole communities — and the approaches applied in the neighborhood conservation-based community building. Taking the empowerment and public engagement of neighborhood conservation in Fukushima, Yame as a case study, this paper studies and reveals the significance that provides reference to the development and protection of the historic neighborhoods in China. Finally, the paper argues that encouraging public engagement and motivation of civil organizations in the empowerment is crucial to the physical and cultural conservation and renewal of the historic neighborhood in the current social and political context of China.

Key words
Historic Neighborhood; Conservation System of Historic Neighborhood; Public Engagement; Neighborhood Conservation-Based Community Building


场地尺度绿色基础设施的协同设计——以咸阳渭柳湿地公园生态修复设计为例
Collaborative Design of Site-Scale Green Infrastructure: A Case Study on the Ecological Restoration Design of Weiliu Wetland Park in Xianyang
作者:栾博,王鑫,金越延,柴民伟,胡春明 Bo LUAN, Xin WANG, Yueyan JIN, Minwei CHAI, Chunming HU

摘要
绿色基础设施是一种具有多重目标的综合性实践。在中国,由于缺少科学研究、工程技术、空间设计的多专业协同设计方法,大量绿色基础设施的场地实践目标单一,无法兼顾生态效益与人居环境品质,甚至造成生态损害。本文以陕西省咸阳市渭柳湿地公园项目的设计过程为例,探索了以科学分析评价为依据、以专业工程技术为支持,通过空间设计进行综合统筹的协同设计方法,以实现场地尺度绿色基础设施的综合价值。该方法对融合了科学性、技术性和艺术性的绿色基础设施场地实践具有借鉴价值。

关键词
绿色基础设施;海绵城市;生态修复;废水资源化;协同设计;渭河

Abstract
Green Infrastructure (GI) is to integrate with multiple objectives into a comprehensive consideration. In China, the lack of multi-disciplinary collaborative design method combining research, engineering technology, and spatial design as a whole limits the practice of GI, resulting in lots of single-function projects, unhelpful in the improvement of both urban resilience and the quality of city life. Taking the design process of Xianyang Weiliu Wetland Park as an example, this paper examines the collaborative design of multi-functional site-scale GI that is generated through a combination of scientific analysis and evaluation, engineering techniques, and landscape and spatial design, hoping to provide reference for the design and practice of GI-based ecological restoration and urban renewal in China.

Key words
Green Infrastructure; Sponge City; Ecological Restoration; Wastewater Reutilization; Collaborative Design; Weihe River


快速城镇化背景下的城中村与老旧小区改造
Urban Renewal in Context of Rapid Urbanization
作者:余猛 Meng YU

摘要
在中国快速城镇化的背景下,大多数城市呈现出品质不高、特色不明显、生态环境有待改善、公共服务水平有待提高等现状。但处在不同阶段,具备不同发展条件和规模的城市所面临的问题也有所差异。该访谈首先以存量空间的品质提升为例,从政府、规划师组织引导及技术创新、模式创新等多个方向阐述了现状进展及解决方案。随后针对新城和城市副中心的建立,进一步阐释了城市发展的客观规律,并强调了将城市要素放在区域中统筹考虑的重要性。在谈及城市更新过程中的城中村拆-建及老旧小区改造时,受访者表示,虽然二者面临的难点互有异同,但对多元主体间共识的重视度均有所提升。

关键词
城市病;城中村;老旧小区;公众参与;城市更新

Abstract
Currently, in China, rapid urbanization has caused many urban issues including lack of quality urban spaces and distinctive urban identity, declined ecological environment, and insufficient public services. Besides, these problems are increasingly complicated due to the different stages and conditions of urban development and different city scales. This interview starts with the topic of how to improve living quality of existing urban spaces, and Meng Yu, the interviewee, expounds the current situation, progress, and solutions regarding governmental guidance and urban planners’ intervention, and the innovations in technology and mechanism. Then Yu elucidates the evolutional laws of urban growth and the necessity of establishing new towns and sub-centers of metropolises, emphasizing the significance of integrating and coordinating different city functions at a regional scale as well. The interviewee also stresses that despite varying difficulties in both demolition of urban villages and renewal of old residential areas, the consensus among plural agents will play an increasingly weighted role in future China.

Key words
Urban Problems; Urban Village; Old Residential Area; Public Engagement; Urban Renewal


Mapping工作坊:重新解读城市更新与日常生活的关系
Re-examining the Relationship between Urban Renewal and Everyday Life through Mapping Workshop
作者:何志森 Jason HO

摘要
受访人何志森于2013年创办了Mapping工作坊,以“跟踪、观察、发现—思维导图训练—构图思考—策展”的独特议程,为解读城市和空间提供了另外一种可能。在此次访谈中,何志森分享了该工作坊产生的契机与意图,并结合自身实践经验,解读了“城市针灸”的含义。基于长期以来对于消极空间的关注,其认为在很多看似无序的混乱背后都存在隐藏的秩序,正是这种秩序维持着整个城市的活力和安全。而谈及社区营造,其提出,如何在不同的利益组织之间实现平衡,将成为设计师在国内未来的社区营造中面临的最大难点。

关键词
Mapping工作坊;城市更新;城市针灸;社区营造;建筑教育

Abstract
Jason Ho, the interviewee, founded Mapping Workshop in 2013, offering an alternative option for interpreting city and urban space with a unique agenda of “observation — mind mapping — representation — curation.” In this interview, he shares the intention to launch Mapping Workshop and interprets “urban acupuncture” based on his practice. Having been long focusing on studying negative urban spaces, Ho indicates that the hidden order behind the chaos in a city generates vigor and maintains the city safe. The interview also covers the topic of community empowerment, in terms of which Ho believes that how to negotiate and coordinate with different stakeholders will be the biggest and most difficult issue to urban designers in future community empowerment in China.

Key words
Mapping Workshop; Urban Renewal; Urban Acupuncture; Community Empowerment; Architecture Education


全球气候变化背景下的棕地修复
Brownfield Remediation under Global Climate Change
作者:尼尔•科克伍德 Niall KIRKWOOD

摘要
本次采访聚焦于全球气候变化背景下的后工业区改造与棕地修复,以及技术在景观设计教学与实践中的应用。尽管气候变化带来的影响多属负面,但尼尔•科克伍德教授认为应当从长远角度辩证地看待这一问题。随着科学技术的迅速发展,新时期的棕地修复项目应运用更多的将传统技术和新技术相结合的策略,同时鼓励更加广泛的社区参与。此外,基于技术在景观中应用的教学,科克伍德教授介绍了5种不同类型课程的教学方法的差异。科克伍德教授亦指出,绝对的原创设计并不存在,唯有不断扩充知识储备、积极参与项目实践,景观设计师才能够在项目设计和落地过程中更加得心应手。

关键词
后工业区改造;棕地修复;气候变化;技术;社区参与;原创性

Abstract
This interview focuses mainly on the post-industrial regeneration and brownfield remediation with the influence of global climate change and the application of technology in landscape architecture teaching and practices. Although climate change is largely regarded to be negative, Professor Niall Kirkwood suggested that we should consider its impacts dialectically in much longer time frame. With the development of science and technology, brownfield remediation in the new era should utilize new technologies with old ones and encourage extensive community participation. With regard to the teaching of technology applied in landscapes, Professor Kirkwood also introduced the differences of five types of courses. In addition, he stated that in landscape architecture design, nothing could be absolutely original. Only with a wide range of experiences and engagement in different types of projects, could landscape architects be confident in their design conception and its evolution as a material reality.

Key words
Post-Industrial Regeneration; Brownfield Remediation; Climate Change; Technology; Community Participation; Originality


创建生态的城市栖息地——芝加哥北岛公园
Creating an Ecological Urban Habitat at Northerly Island in Chicago
作者:Studio Gang设计事务所 Studio Gang

摘要
作为一项综合框架计划的组成部分之一,北岛公园项目将芝加哥湖畔的一处面积为37hm2的人造半岛改造为一个生机勃勃的生态公园。项目设计充分体现了场地的人工性特质,通过地形改造和景观设计,吸引野生动物来此栖息一以随着时间的推移,在更宽广的范围内创造出一个拥有丰富生物多样性的生态系统。这里有着各种各样的栖息地和特色建筑,为人们提供了多种在城市中亲近自然的途径。

关键词
生物多样性;公共公园;生态系统;城市野生动物

Abstract
Developed as part of a comprehensive framework plan, the Northerly Island project transforms a man-made peninsula on Chicago’s lakefront into a 91-acre public park that functions as a living ecosystem. The design embraces the site’s artificiality, constructing a topography and landscape that encourages wildlife to occupy it — over time, creating an amplified, bio-diverse ecosystem whose various habitats and architectural features offer people multiple ways to engage nature in the city.

Key words
Biodiversity; Public Park; Ecosystem; Urban Wildlife


运行的生产性景观:常德市城头山大遗址公园生态修复与景观设计
Productive Landscape in Operation: Ecological Restoration and Landscape Design of Chengtoushan National Archaeological Site Park in Changde
作者:耿苒,邵飞,张亚奇 Ran GENG, Fei SHAO, Yaqi ZHANG

摘要
该项目旨在探索如何在失去了原有田块及陂塘系统肌理的情况下挖掘遗址的场所精神,寻找农业景观与旅游地的契合点,发现促进生态系统良性循环的设计要素和方法,以及重塑人与土地间可持续的发展关系。通过对遗址外围景观进行最小程度的干预、修复护城河水岸及在场地南侧区域设计户外稻田博物馆,改造后的城头山遗址公园探索出了一条遗址公园景观保护与改造的创新之路。

关键词
遗址公园;场所精神;生产性景观;稻田博物馆;生态修复

Abstract
This project focused on how to celebrate the spirit of the heritage site on a damaged base where the original texture of rice fields and pond systems were replaced with hardscapes; how to integrate the agricultural landscape with tourism; how to explore landscape elements and design methods that improve the local ecosystem; and, how to reestablish a sustainable and healthy relationship between human and land. Through the minimum intervention on the surroundings of the core heritage area, the restoration of the moat waterfront, and the creation of the outdoor rice field museum in the south, the transformation of Chengtoushan National Archaeological Site Park explores an innovative way for landscape protection and design of heritage parks.

Key words
Heritage Park; Spirit of Place; Productive Landscape; Rice Field Museum; Ecological Restoration


澳大利亚阿德莱德市鲍顿主公园
Bowden Main Park in Adelaide, Australia
作者:澳派景观设计工作室 ASPECT Studiosl

摘要
新建的鲍顿主公园坐落于南澳大利亚州鲍顿改造区中心,是当地最大的公共空间。它的建成大大推动了鲍顿地区在阿德莱德中央商务区边缘地带创造一个多样化、有活力的新型社区这一愿景的实现。鲍顿公园为占地15hm2的城市填充式开发中心营造了一片绿洲,这里将成为阿德莱德中心商务区外围人口最稠密的城市区域,预计将为学生、年轻家庭、首套房业主和退休人员等人群提供居住场所。鲍顿公园的案例展现了一个思虑周全的设计如何建立人与人之间关系的纽带,增强城市的社交和娱乐功能,以及如何在不断发展的社区中为当地居民提供适宜的场所。

关键词
可持续设计;公共空间;城市填充式改造;社区参与

Abstract
Bowden’s new main park is the central and single largest public space located within the Bowden redevelopment in South Australia. It makes a significant step in realizing the vision for Bowden of creating a diverse and exciting new community on the edge of Adelaide’s CBD. Bowden Main Park provides a green oasis in the heart of a 15-hectare urban infill development that will become Adelaide’s most densely populated urban district outside the CBD, and an area projected to house a wide ranging demographic from students to young families, first home owners and retirees. Bowden Main Park is an example of how thoughtful and considered design can connect people, enhance the social and recreational fabric of the city and provide an authentic destination within the new and still establishing community.

Key words
Sustainable Design; Public Space; Urban Infill Transformation; Community Engagement


都市走廊的可持续都市主义:德克萨斯州休斯顿10号园区实证型城市设计
Sustainable Urbanism for a Metropolitan Corridor: An Evidence-based Urban Design for Park 10 in Houston, Texas
作者:金埈铉,盖伦•纽曼,封赫婧,杰雷米•梅里尔,朴钟薰,卞佳荷 Jun-Hyun KIM, Galen NEWMAN, Hejing FENG, Jeremy MERRILL, Jonghoon PARK, Jiahe BIAN

摘要
该项目旨在为美国德克萨斯州休斯顿市的一处商业区制定一项综合性总体规划,该规划以可持续都市主义为设计原则。其主要设计目标是建立一个宜居且可持续的城市商业中心,以促进当地经济增长;同时推广一项街景设计指南,以提升该地块对行人和骑行者的友好度。

关键词
可持续都市主义;街景设计;低影响开发;步行和骑行友好型开发;能源走廊区

Abstract
This project is to develop a comprehensive master plan incorporating key principles of sustainable urbanism for a business district in Houston, Texas, USA. The main design objectives are to create a livable and sustainable urban business center, to promote economic growth and to implement a streetscape design guideline to promote walkability and bikeability.

Key words
Sustainable Urbanism; Streetscape Design; Low Impact Development; Walkable and Bikeable Development; Energy Corridor District


波兰波兹南市马耳他艺术节临时公共空间
Temporary Public Space for Malta Festival Poznań in Poland
作者:Starzak Strebicki设计事务所 Atelier Starzak Strebicki

摘要
该项目旨在柔化自由广场巨大的体量感,营造宜人尺度的广场空间。自由广场主要由混凝土铺装而成,缺少绿化,在严寒酷暑之际,很少会有人在此驻足。而马耳他艺术节则倡导恢复传统的街头戏剧,自由广场正是借助这一契机成为了备受欢迎的公共空间。广场占地面积超过4 000m2,通过将其划分成较小的分区,并在各个分区中设计多姿多彩的活动,广场空间变得更加友好且适宜各年龄层的人群使用。圆形或长方形的桌椅、防水软垫等不同类型的城市小品,界定出了特定的功能区域,包括儿童区、临时咖啡厅和餐厅、音乐和戏剧舞台,以及工作坊。由此,自由广场成为了激发社区活力的城市空间的设计典范。

关键词
临时公共空间;城市生活;城市更新;社区活力

Abstract
The aim of the project was to change the monumental scale of Liberty Square into human scale. During summer and winter, Liberty Square remains unused, where the concrete surface as well as the lack of greenery curbs the spontaneous actions of city dwellers. In the frame of Generator Malta, an initiative undertaking the tradition of street theater, the square is changed into a lively public realm. Dividing this large area (more than 4,000 m2) into smaller zones and designing places for particular activities helped to establish accessible friendly space for everyone. Different types of urban furniture, including round or rectangular tables and benches, and soft waterproof pillows, help define specific zones for children, temporary café and restaurant, music and theater stage, and workshop space. In effect, the Liberty Square becomes a prototype of an urban interior of community activation.

Key words
Temporary Public Space; City Life; Urban Renewal; Community Activation


弹性搭建——首尔解放村商业街区微更新设计
Flexible Construction: Micro-renewal Design in the Haebangchon Neighborhood of Seoul
作者:吕小辉,徐夕然,张旸,贾静 Xiaohui LV, Xiran XU, Yang ZHANG, Jing JIA

摘要
项目针对韩国首尔市解放村商业街区中人车混行、市集混乱、活动空间类型单一、设施匮乏等问题,提出了“弹性搭建”微更新设计方案,即通过一种自下而上的、低成本且高效的模块化设计方式,对街区进行有机更新,既可有效缓解各种矛盾,又可保留街区原有的活力。“弹性搭建”项目尝试探索一种更具弹性和可持续性的空间干预模式,以期为城市传统街区的更新提供一种新思路。

关键词
传统街区;微更新;弹性搭建;模块化设计

Abstract
To address the problems of lacking traffic planning, informal street vending, and deficient public space and amenities in the Haebangchon neighborhood of Seoul, South Korea, this project proposes a micro-renewal plan of “flexible construction” to transform the neighborhood in a bottom-up way. This cost-efficient approach of modular design will alleviate these conditions and improve neighborhood vitality. The project aims to develop a more resilient and sustainable spatial design for urban renewal.

Key words
Traditional Neighborhood; Micro-Renewal; Flexible Construction; Modular Design


禁足之境:演进的自然遗产与衰败的灾难遗迹
Forbidden Ground: Evolutionary Natural Legacy and Decaying Disaster Heritage
作者:陈煦斌 Xubin CHEN

摘要
当代纪念性构筑物侧重于突出建筑形态和象征意义,而忽略了它们所处的场地和环境。本研究认为景观过程和人类活动的交织能够提供一种更具批判性的纪念方式。这些过程涵盖土地、水体、植物和其他景观元素,以及人类对某一事件的认知与记忆。景观不是一个静止的场景,而是会通过物质转移随时间和空间更迭而持续进化。因此,针对某一事件的纪念性景观经历了从古典美学到相对美学,再到系统美学的持续发展过程,并最终揭示了蕴藏其中的经济、社会政治和生态价值。通过就不同的时间尺度、复杂的物质属性和未来的不确定性提出一系列设计策略和方法,该项目试图模拟和呈现那些有潜力改变场地的环境生态和社会政治生态的自然模式。项目以世界历史上规模最大的技术性灾难之一——发生于1986年的切尔诺贝利核事故为对象,提出自2016年起50年的规划预景。以事故场地为出发点,该项目旨在纪念这一严重事件并对各类政治假设和复杂现实作出有效回应。

关键词
切尔诺贝利;核辐射;政局变幻;物质转移;植物修复;时间演变

Abstract
Contemporary monuments tend to foreground architectural form and symbolic significance, rather than the land and the ground on which they rest. This thesis argues that the combination of landscape processes and human operations offers a more critical way to construct a monument to an event. These processes involve earth, water, plants, and other landscape elements, as well as the senses and memories of humans in relation to an event. Landscape is not a static, idyllic scene, but is constantly evolving over time and space through material migrations. Therefore, an event’s monumental landscape continually evolves from a classical to a relative to a systematic aesthetic, which ultimately unveils its economic, sociopolitical and ecological values. Proceeding from a set of design strategies and interventions that deal with integrated timescales, complex materials, and uncertain futures, this project seeks to simulate and manifest natural patterns that have the potential to change the environmental and sociopolitical ecology of a place. It proposes a series of 50-year landscape scenarios since 2016 for the development of the Chernobyl accident of 1986 site, which was confronted with one of the largest-scale technogenic disasters in the world history. With this site as a point of departure, the project serves to memorialize the event and respond productively to various political hypotheses and complex realities.
Key words
Chernobyl; Nuclear Radiation; Political Ambiguity; Material Migration; Phytoremediation; Time Process


乔木之外
More than Trees
作者:玛丽安娜•西凯拉,伊莎贝尔•施密特,亚历山大•桑派奥,阿玛利亚•罗布雷多 Mariana SIQUEIRA, Isabel SCHMIDT, Alexandre SAMPAIO, Amalia ROBREDO

摘要
位于巴西中部的塞拉多草原占据了近1/4的国土,是世界上生物多样性最丰富的热带稀树草原。尽管拥有丰富而美丽的植物资源,塞拉多景观的闻名程度却远不及同样位于巴西的热带雨林,在巴西的本土文化中也鲜被提及。
长期以来,巴西本土的生态修复和景观设计项目往往都只考虑乔木,而忽略草本及灌木。而塞拉多草原恰好以草本及灌木见长,其种类多达7 000余种,占据了60%以上的生物多样性,并拥有多种基本生态功能。
当前,这一情况正在发生转变。在本文所呈现的“恢复塞拉多”和“塞拉多公园”这两个相互关联的实践中,都展开了对不同的植物组织形式(草本、木本和藤本)在生态修复及景观设计项目中进行应用的探索。此外,本文还呈现了两个项目团队尝试进行的两组试验,以展示理解巴西热带稀树草原并同其一同发挥效益的可能性。

关键词
生态修复;景观设计;自然风格种植;本土植物;热带稀树草原;塞拉多

Abstract
Right at the center of Brazil, covering almost 22% of its area, lies the world’s most biodiverse savanna, the Cerrado. Despite of the richness and beauty of its flora, Cerrado’s landscapes are not as celebrated as the country’s rainforests, and tend to be neglected in cultural expressions.
Historically, ecological restoration and landscape design projects have considered only the trees of the biome, leaving behind grasses, forbs and shrubs that not only characterize the savanna, but also represent more than 60% of the diversity (close to 7,000 species) of the Cerrado, which hold many fundamental ecological functions.
This situation is now beginning to change. This article presents two interrelated projects, Restaura Cerrado and Jardins de Cerrado, which focus on different plant forms (herbaceous, woody and liana species) in restoration and gardening initiatives. Two experiments are conducted with efforts to explore new possibilities of understanding the Brazilian savanna and of working with it.

Key words
Ecological Restoration; Landscape Design; Naturalistic Planting; Native Plants; Savanna; Cerrado