新加坡ABC水计划和碧山宏茂桥公园与加冷河修复

2015-03-02 作者:佚名 来源:景观中国 浏览:

甲方:新加坡公用事业局,国家水务局,国家公园局

设计时间:2007~2010年

完成时间:2012年2月

设计单位:安博戴水道

设计规模:62 hm2(3km河道)

所在国家:新加坡

作品地址:2012新加坡游憩场地设计奖;2012世界建筑节年度最佳景观设计项目奖

  新加坡碧山宏茂桥公园与加冷河修复是一个城市蓝绿基础设施设计的全新展示。作为2006年发布的新加坡“活力Active、美观Beautiful、清洁Clean”ABC水计划的旗舰项目之一,它显示了应对缓解供水需求和防洪保护、同时创造城市之中可供市民休闲娱乐的优美自然空间的设计方案。
  The Kallang River Bishan Park project is a new vision for blue-green city infrastructure. As one of the flagship projects in the Active, Beautiful, Clean Waters (ABC Waters) Programme which was launched in 2006 and addresses the dual needs of water supply and flood protection while creating spaces for people and nature in the city.

  该项目的目标是改造加冷河以及碧山公园,使之成为新加坡打造绿色城市基础设施的新篇章,既解决新加坡国内水源提供、防治洪灾的需要,也增设更多供人们休闲与娱乐的场所。也因此,它收获了2012年世界建筑节年度最佳景观设计项目奖。
  The goal was to transform the Kallang River- Bishan Park into a new and unprecedented vision for blue-green city infrastructure which addresses the multiple needs of water supply and flood protection while creating spaces for people and nature in the city. And it achieved the award of Landscape Project of the Year in 2012 World Architecture Festival (WAF).

  项目背景
  Background Information

  热带花卉,公园内进行太极锻炼的人们,美食佳肴,这就是新加坡的印象!作为一个缺乏含水层、并拥有接近500万人口的岛国,新加坡需要收集雨水作为饮用水来源,目前60%的淡水都依赖马来西亚调入。20世纪70年代,新加坡推行大规模的转化自然水系成为混凝土结构排水管道、沟渠,以方便雨水的有效排放、防御洪涝灾害。也正是在这一时期,加冷河被建造成为了一条混凝土结构的水道。它在当时确实缓解了问题,但在30余年之后,一条毫无自然形态的混凝土渠道已经不能满足新加坡城市基础设施的功能和景观需求。另外,这些河道和运河的安全问题也值得考虑,每次降雨之时随着水位的急速上涨都会带来一定的危险。最新的知识和技术展示了一个崭新的机会 – 运用多学科的思维和整合性的解决方案,同时满足关于城市环境之中水资源的多方面的挑战和需求。
  Tropical flowers, people doing Tai Chi in the park, great food, that’s Singapore! As an island state without aquifers and with a population of nearly 5 million people, Singapore is driven by the necessity of capturing rainwater for use as drinking water, 60% of its water supply is currently piped from Malaysia into the city. In the 1970s, Singapore embarked on a widescale conversion of its natural water systems into concrete culverts and drainage channels, in an effort to facilitate the efficient conveyance of rainwater and prevent flooding. It was also during this time that Kallang River was turned into a concrete canal. One problem was solved but now 30 years later a concrete channel without a trace of nature is not anymore an acceptable element of the urban infrastructure system. In addition these channels are dangerous as it fills to a raging torrent with every rainfall and cause every year several loss of life. Recent knowledge and technology have presented a real opportunity for adopting interdisciplinary thinking and integrated solutions that could simultaneously address the multifaceted challenges and needs of dealing with water in an urban environment.

  碧山宏茂桥公园于20世纪60年代末建成,园内的便利设施都反映了那个时代的需求和设计风格。在过去的30年内,公园附近的住宅区人口密度持续增加。由于碧山公园是新加坡国内唯一的一个大型公园,利用率很高,因此它也成为新加坡国内最受欢迎的公园,每年接待游客超过300万人次。因其建造于填埋土地之上,场地排水困难。另外,改造之前的碧山公园的生物多样性相当单调,大片的草坪之中零星分布几棵树木,毫无生物多样性可言。如今随着时代的变更,为了满足市民和游客的不同需求,它需要进行一系列的改造和修葺。
The park was built in the late 1960’s with amenities that reflected the needs and style of that time. The density in the neighbouring housing areas has increased constantly since 30 years. Bishan Park is the only big park in the surrounding and highly used which resulted in yearly visitors of more than 3 Million. Built on landfill, areas have settled causing a difficult drainage situation. The former park was more or less a monoculture: wide lawn areas with randomly located trees. There was no considerable biodiversity existing. It needed both, a face lift and a change of the offered programming as the needs have changed considerably over the last decades.

  项目目标
  Goals of the Initiative

  2006年,新加坡国家水务局、公用事业局联合发起了“活力、美观、清洁”的ABC水计划,转变国家既存的功能单一、实用性的排水沟渠、河道、蓄水池成为充满生机、美观的溪流、河湖,并同时整合周边的土地开发,便于创建出崭新的水滨休闲、社区活动空间,并有助于将新加坡建设成为活力的花园水城。当被纳入到大规模的集水区尺度,并与社会-文化性状相结合时,高度可持续性的方案能够充分地发挥作用。“活力、美观、清洁”ABC计划开拓了公共、私人和商业行业部门分享合作的局面,以动态、全面的方式进行城市范围内的水资源管理。作为一项长期的举措,截止2030年,将有超过100多个项目被确立阶段性实施,与已经竣工完成的20个项目一道,拉近了人与水的距离。
  In 2006, Singapore’s national water agency, Public Utilities Board (PUB), initiated the Active, Beautiful and Clean (ABC) Waters Programme to transform the country’s network of utilitarian drains, canals, and reservoirs into vibrant and beautiful streams, rivers, and lakes, seamlessly integrated with their adjacent land developments. This creates new spaces close to water for recreation and community bonding, and will turn Singapore into a vibrant city of gardens and water. Deep sustainable solutions function best when they are networked on a large watershed scale and are socio-culturally integrated. The ABC (Active, Beautiful and Clean) Waters programme is a dynamic and holistic approach to managing water across a city based on the shared involvement of public, private and business sectors. A long-term initiative, over 100 locations has been identified for project implementation in phases by 2030, with 20 projects already completed, bringing people closer to water.

  项目介绍
  Project Introduction

  该计划之中的大型旗舰项目 – 碧山宏茂桥公园和加冷河修复展示了令人惊喜的变化,这样一种公园-河道景观的复兴带来了公园周边区域环境的优化、增强了社区的联结。这个项目的设计重点包含转换沿碧山宏茂桥公园边缘行走的加冷河从一条硬生生的混凝土排水渠成为一条拥有自然式河岸结构、并与公园完美融合的内容。与此同时,公园内部的设施也得到了升级改建。在该项目之中,新加坡公用事业局与国家公园委员会的联合合作显示了不同职能范围的政府机构如何协同合作共同面对挑战和机遇。
  A major flagship project under the programme, the Kallang River @ Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park ABC Waters project demonstrates the exciting changes that such a revitalisation could bring to both the environment and the communities around the park. It involved transforming the Kallang River that ran in a concrete canal along the edge of Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park into a naturalised river that is seamlessly integrated within the park. Facilities in the park were also upgraded as part of the project. A joint collaboration between PUB and National Parks Board (NParks), it illustrates how government agencies with different disciplines (for example, parks and water) can work together to meet the challenges and opportunities ahead of them.

  碧山公园的新规划将设计与功能考虑结合。长2.7km的笔直混凝土排水渠已经恢复为长3.2km的弯曲、自然式河流,蜿蜒穿过公园。62公顷的公园空间被重新进行设计,以适应包括水位波动等的河流系统的动态过程,为使用者提供最大化收益。运用生态工法技术加固河岸,公园内部的整体循环系统得到提升。新建步道与河流平行,宽敞的设置用以满足大流量徒步者、自行车骑行者和溜冰者的需求。公园出入口设置合理、实用,便捷地与公共交通和本地商业连接。水上游乐园是孩子们玩耍的安全场地,尤其在炎热的时节里,脱掉鞋子、任由感官尽情地与水嬉闹!一个既存的池塘被转换为生态净化群落,对雨水径流和河流水体进行净化处理。而新的咖啡馆能够活跃气氛,为公园内活动的举办提供场地支持。大量的绿色开放空间为城市中心区生态修复河流形成的自然奇观提供了有益的补充。这里是一处可以脱掉鞋子,与水和自然亲近的地方!
  The new proposal for Bishan Park combines design with function. A 2.7 km long straight concrete drainage channel has been restored into a sinuous, natural river 3.2 km long, that meanders through the park. Sixty-two hectares of park space has been tastefully redesigned to accommodate the dynamic process of a river system which includes fluctuating water levels, while providing maximum benefit for park users. The river banks will be stabilized using bioengineering technology and the entire circulation system of the park will be improved. A new boulevard flows in parallel to the river, and is generously broad to handle the large volume of walkers, bikers and skaters which can be expected. Access into the city is made logical and practical, facilitating connections to public transport and local businesses. A water playground will be a safe place for children (and adults) to take off their shoes and abandon their senses to the delights of water, particularly appealing in a hot climate. One of the existing ponds will be transformed into a cleansing biotope which will clean stormwater run-off and river water. A new café area will help activate the park and support events. Plenty of open green spaces complement the natural wonder of an ecologically restored river in the heartlands of the city. This is a place to take your shoes off, and get closer to water and nature!

  土壤生态工法技术被应用于碧山宏茂桥公园进行河流堤岸的加固。它既是将土木工程设计原理与植物和自然材料,如能够防止侵蚀并减缓水流的石材相结合。不像其他技术之中植物仅仅发挥美化功用,在土壤生态工法中,植物扮演重要的结构控制元素,它们的根基能够稳固河岸。因植物和自然材料的使用,土壤生态工法结构同时具备动态演变和适应环境的能力,它们进行持续的自我修复和生长。因此长期来讲,相比于硬质的混凝土结构,它建造成本低廉且经济维护、持久。
  Soil bioengineering techniques were applied at Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park for river embankment stabilisation. This refers to the combination of civil engineering design principles with plants and natural materials, such as rocks, which control erosion and slow-down the flow of water. Unlike other technologies in which plants play an aesthetic role, plants have an important structural component in soil bioengineering—their roots help stabilize the riverbanks. As plants and natural materials are used, soil bioengineering structures are also characterised by their ability to evolve and adapt to their environment and constantly self-repair and grow. They are therefore significantly more cost-efficient to install and much more sustainable and economically viable to maintain than hard, concrete structures in the long term.

  生态性也成为该设计过程的另一主要的初衷,尤其考虑到碧山宏茂桥公园的地理位置,它能够发挥增强区域生物多样性的潜力。自然式的河流孕育生命,土壤生态工法技术的使用能够创造出大量形态各异的微生境,不仅有益于增加生物多样性,而且保障这些生物种类在公园环境中的适应能力,从而保障它们的长期存活能力。场地的生态性在整个建设过程之中一直被监测,预计项目的完成带来30%生物多样性的增加。
  Ecology has been another key priority from the get-go of the design process, especially since the geographical context of Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park has endowed it with a fantastic potential for biodiversity. The naturalised river teems with life, as the use of soil bioengineering techniques has created a huge variety of microhabitats, which not only increase biodiversity but also ensure the resilience of the species within the park, thus ensuring their long-term ability to survive. The ecology of the site has been monitored throughout the construction process and it is estimated that biodiversity has increased by 30 percent with the completion of the project.

  2009年在沿公园内一条排水边沟60米的长度范围内,试验河床被建造,用以测试10种不同的土壤生态工法技术和大量的本土植物品种,以优化建造方法和提炼适当的技术工艺和植物种类选择。最终,7种技术被选定用以主要河段的建造。
  In 2009, a test bed was constructed, testing about 10 different soil bioengineering techniques and a wide variety of native plant species along a length of 60 metres at one of the side drains in the park. This test bed was used to optimise the construction methods and refine the selection of appropriate techniques and plants. Seven of these techniques were then selected for use along the main river.

  这一项目成为了热带地区首个应用土壤生态工法技术稳固河岸、保护其免受侵蚀、并提供动植物生境的河流自然化的项目,它将为区域内未来的项目提供极其重要的参考。
  This is the first river naturalisation project in the tropics to incorporate soil bioengineering techniques to stabilise the riverbanks, protect them from erosion, and provide habitats for the flora and fauna, and it will serve to be a vital reference source for future projects in the region.

  河流规划的水利模型被建造,用来检测和观测河流的动态变化,探索河流设计的可能节奏。它的建造方便了河流关键部位的确定,在那里水体流动速率高、需要设置高等级的控制土壤侵蚀标准。这样,设计师便能够在这样的位置上配置更多的根基稳固、结实耐用的植物品种,而在大面积的缓坡河岸部位则可应用低密度的柔和植物配置。
  A hydraulic model of the planned river was also used to examine and understand the dynamics of the river, and explore the possible variations of river design. This facilitated the identification of key locations where the velocity of water is higher and a higher degree of erosion control is needed, so designers could allocate more robust plant species to these areas and apply softer plantings of lower density where there are larger areas of gently sloping banks.

  在干爽的季节里 ,这些河岸区域可以提供大面积的开敞空间进行各种休闲活动,如放风筝、跑步、野餐等等。而在降雨时节,紧邻河流的公园区域便充当了输水渠道,输送水体向下游流动。这种新加入进来的输水河道能够形成蜿蜒曲折、宽度变幻的多样水流方式,它类似自然界河流系统,从而能够创造出生态上有价值、自然式、多样化的生境,有益于生物多样性的提升。学习自然界的规则形式,用以改造空间、提供多功能的用途,无疑是城市环境之中有效开放空间设计的关键要旨。
  In dry weather, these gentle riverbanks provide generous open spaces for recreational activities, such as kite flying, running, and picnicking. In a heavy downpour, however, the park land that is next to the river doubles up as a conveyance channel, carrying the water downstream. The alignment of the newly created river channel also integrated meander bends and varying widths to create diverse flow patterns, which are characteristic of natural river systems and create ecologically valuable, natural, and diverse habitats for increase of biodiversity. Learning from nature’s gracious ways of adapting spaces for multiple functions is undoubtedly one of the keys to the effective design of open spaces within an urban context.

  另外,碧山宏茂桥公园也展示了新加坡首个生态净化群落的设置。它的设置能够提供有效的水质处理,同时维护自然的美观环境。生态净化群落是自然式的净化系统,它包含精心选择的植物品种,通过过滤污染物和吸收水中营养物进行净化水质。设置于公园的上游区域,生态净化群落能够帮助维护池塘内水质的清洁,而无需使用任何化学药剂。公园内新建的水上游乐园设施用水即由该池塘提供,并同时进行UV的处理。
  In addition, the park presented an opportunity for the installation of the first cleansing biotope in Singapore, which offers effective water treatment while maintaining a natural and beautiful environment. Cleansing biotopes are natural cleansing systems that consist of carefully selected plants that help cleanse the water by filtering pollutants and absorbing nutrients. Located upstream in the park, the cleansing biotope helps maintain the water quality of the ponds without the use of chemicals. The new water playground at Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park is supplied by cleansed pond water that has been filtered through the cleansing biotope as well as an ultraviolet (UV) treatment.

  通过学习、测试、提升、改进新的知识,我们才能够实现这样的愿景,创建出一个城市公园,它能够同时作为生态的、水利的、休闲的基础设施,从城市集水区输送水体,创建城市体核心区域的优美空间,供人们观察、保护和养育自然生物。一定意义上可以说,这个项目将改变新加坡人的生活。周末孩子们可以来到这里嬉水游玩,环保主义者也将谈起他们幼年时期学校组织的公园拓展活动。总之,碧山宏茂桥公园和加冷河的修复开阔了我们的设计想象,为新加坡智能、美丽、宜居的国家城市实现增添了重要的一笔!
  Without the willingness to test, improve, and adapt new knowledge, one would not be able to stride boldly towards a vision—of a city park that can function simultaneously as an ecological, hydrological, and recreational infrastructure; of conveying water from an urban catchment; of creating a space in the heart of urbanity where man can observe, preserve, and nurture wildlife. It is hardly an exaggeration to say that this project will change the lives of Singaporeans. Childhoods will be marked with weekends of wadding wet feet. Environmentalists will speak about school excursions to the park in their earlier years. But the Kallang River @ Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park ABC Waters project shall, above all, be remembered as a project that stretches our imaginations towards the reality of a smart, beautiful, and liveable city.

  项目经验
  Benefit to Other Cities

  城市一直以来被认为是大自然的对立面,而如今,需要将二者融为一体。城市的韧性需要增强,气候变化导致的洪灾、干旱在现今和未来将极大地影响城市发展。新加坡ABC水计划这一雨水分散收集、流域整合的创新概念能够帮助城市更好地面对未来的挑战。
  Cities have always been seen as the opposite of nature whereas nowadays we have to find a way to integrate nature and cities. Cities have to become more resilient, the climate change with higher risk of flood events and drought periods will affect cities extremely in near future. ABC Waters Programme that works with decentralized integration is perfect for the adaption to the future challenges.

  公园与河流的动态互动赋予了碧山宏茂桥公园新的独特身份,它将成为新加坡首个展示项目,并为国家以外区域河流的修复项目提供有益的借鉴。在全球性水资源稀缺的大背景下,碧山公园能够成为ABC水计划之中一个关键的教育案例。公园意在吸引当地民众并培养对于河流的公共性主人意识,这一点对于流域性水资源保护计划的深入人心、扎根落地及其重要。取代距离感和恐惧心理,碧山宏茂桥公园将水重新带回人们身边,这里是他们自己的场地、自己的公园、自己的河流 – 可以享受并值得关爱的宝贵资源!
  The dynamic interplay of park and river will give Bishan Park a new unique identity but even more, it will be a first demonstration project in Singapore and will give hope for healthy rivers far beyond the island state. Within a global context of water scarcity, Bishan Park is a key educational tool for the ABC programme. The park seeks to engage local people and foster a sense of communal ownership of the river. This is vital for a ground roots acceptance of the watershed based water resource protection programme. Instead of distance and fear, Bishan Park brings water back to the people; it is their place, their park, their river – something to enjoy and worth taking care of.