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地方营造:来自中国杭州“最佳实践区”的启示

安道设计 2021-01-08 来源:景观中国网
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良渚文化村20周年焕新计划尽管告一段落,微更新激起的效应仍在发酵中。

良渚文化村20周年焕新计划尽管告一段落,微更新激起的效应仍在发酵中。

以白鹭公园和滨河公园为主的公区环境焕新后,不仅周边居民的户外活动多了起来,一些远道而来的游客也将这里列为休闲娱乐目的地。居民的活动范围增大了,生活也变得更多样化了。

对环境变化最敏感的感知者是儿童,公园里嬉戏的孩子多了起来,各个年龄层之间的互动不经意间也多了起来……居民的生活体验得到提升,人与环境、人与人之间的互动也变得更具活力和温情。

随着活力的彰显,良渚这个地方,也重新被人们所认识、探讨。

用微更新来激活空间,让人与环境发生更深入的连接,是此次焕新的出发点,也是地方营造的精神所在。


Although the 20th anniversary renewal plan of Liangzhu Cultural Village has come to an end, the effects of the micro-update are still fermenting.

After the Egret Park and Binhe Park has been renewed, not only the surrounding have more outdoor activities, but tourists have also listed it as a leisure and entertainment destination. The scope of residents' activities has increased, and their lives have become more diverse.

Children are the most sensitive perceiver of environmental changes. There are more children playing in the park, and more inadvertent interactions among all age groups... Residents’ life experience has been improved, and the relationship between people and the environment, the interaction between people them has become more energetic and warm.

With the display of vitality, the place of Liangzhu has been recognized and explored again

Using micro-renewal to activate the space and make people have a deeper connection with the environment is the starting point of this renewal and the spirit of place-making.

 









01 什么是地方营造?

What is Place-making?

“地方营造”(place-making)最初是一个用于城市规划和管理的概念,它源自于上个世纪六、七十年代的美国,由挑战当时美国主流城市规划理论的学者所提出。他们强调城市规划应该以人为本、以为人们的日常生活提供便利和创造意义为工作重心,而不仅仅是为汽车和购物中心服务。

近年来,“地方营造”频繁出现在中国城市规划和乡村建设中,是指对某一个地方进行考察和评估后,制定相应的方案和措施,来改善当地的生活环境,提高居民生活质量的一种综合性在地建设活动。

 

Place-making was originally a concept used for urban planning and management. It originated in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s, and was proposed by scholars who challenged mainstream urban planning theories in the United States at that time. They emphasized that urban planning should be people-oriented, providing convenience and creating meaning for people's daily lives, rather than just serving cars and shopping malls.

In recent years, "place-making" has frequently appeared in China's urban planning and rural construction. It refers to the development of corresponding plans and measures to improve the local living environment and improve the quality of life of residents after inspecting and evaluating a certain place. A comprehensive local construction activity.





要弄懂什么是“地方营造”(place-making),先要明白什么是“地方”(place)。地方,既是被观察的对象,又是观察的方式;既是被赋予意义的空间,又是赋予空间意义的策略。地方的塑造,通常透过环境的改变和事件的发酵,寻回地方的精神,从而建立人与人、人与城市环境的连接。

从地方营造的英文place-making可以看出,地方营造是一个持续的过程,而不仅仅只是某个设计或装置。这个过程需要大家一起协作、用心重新去塑造公共领域。在过程中,以最大化的共享价值,鼓励居民一起投入,发挥创意,加强地方居民的文化认同和身份认同。


To understand what place-making is, you must first understand what place is. Place is not only the object to be observed, but also the way of observation; it is not only a space given meaning, but also a strategy for giving space meaning. The shaping of a place usually finds the spirit of the place through changes in the environment and the fermentation of events, thereby establishing a connection between people and people, and between people and the urban environment.

It can be seen from English place-making that place-making is a continuous process, not just a design or installation. This process requires everyone to work together and diligently reshape the public domain. In the process, to maximize the shared value, encourage residents to invest together, give full play to creativity, and strengthen the cultural identity and identity of local residents.


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地方营造不一定是大工程,只要能开放未被充分利用的公共空间可能性,甚至用笔画装饰一条人行路,运动场多添一个篮球架,都可以是地方营造。地方营造,本质上是透过环境的改变,构建与培育人与环境、人与人的相互关系,让生活的空间,变成产生情感和依恋的“地方”。

Place-making is not necessarily a major project, as long as it can open up the possibility of underutilized public space, even decorate a sidewalk with strokes, and add a basketball hoop to the sports field, it can be a place-making.

Place-making, in essence, is to construct and nurture the relationship between people and the environment and between people through the change of the environment, so that the space of life becomes a "place" where emotions and attachments are generated.


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02 地方营造激活空间

Place-making activate space

如何用地方营造的概念,去探索城市里生活空间的课题?荷兰阿姆斯特丹史基浦机场给了我们一个很好的启发。

史基浦机场除了富有特色的购物和餐饮环境,还拥有博物馆、图书馆和机场公园。在这个机场,你可以欣赏荷兰黄金时代艺术大师们的长期藏品和各种艺术作品展,享受如茵绿草和阳光露台,还能享受混合虚拟技术带来的视觉盛宴。


How to use the concept of place-making to explore the topic of living space in the city? Amsterdam Schiphol Airport in the Netherlands gave us a good inspiration.

In addition to a distinctive shopping and dining environment, Schiphol Airport also has a museum, library and airport park. At this airport, you can admire the long-term collections and various art exhibitions of Dutch golden age art masters, enjoy the green grass and sun terrace, and enjoy the visual feast brought by hybrid virtual technology.





最令人称道的,是机场同时设置了多个主题的社交空间,旅客们可以在此分享旅行趣事,进行情感交流。陶瓷牛群、透明输送带、设计大钟等细节,让空间与建筑融为一体,无数在这里停留、休息、相遇的旅客,不用入境荷兰,就好像已经到达目的地,感受到当地的风情。

这个机场,也已经由一个中转地,演变成一个热门的旅游目的地,人们在这里候机、购物、娱乐、社交……“空间”变成了“地方”,当地人更有归属感,外来者更有体验感。


The most commendable thing is that the airport has set up multiple themed social spaces at the same time, where passengers can share interesting travel stories and communicate emotionally. Ceramic cows, transparent conveyor belts, large design clocks and other details integrate space and architecture. Countless travelers who stay, rest and meet here do not need to enter the Netherlands, as if they have arrived at their destination and feel the local customs.

This airport has also evolved from a transit point into a popular tourist destination, where people wait for the flight, shop, entertain, and socialize... "space" has become "place". Locals have a more sense of belonging, and outsiders have a more sense of experience.


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03 用策略来营造地方

Use strategies to make places

地方营造,除了设计的方式,我们更希望透过综合策略和事件来激发地方的活力。

越后妻有的大地艺术展,让消寂的村庄变成了艺术爱好者朝圣的桃花源;中国美术学院的秋叶艺术节,让街边的落叶变成有生命的艺术品。我们想通过策展的方式,利用良渚的生态和地貌,唤醒这里的艺术基因。


Place-making, in addition to the way of design, we hope to stimulate the vitality of the place through comprehensive strategies and events.

The Land Art Exhibition of Echigo-Tsumari has turned the desolate village into a pilgrimage for art lovers; the Autumn Leaf Art Festival of the China Academy of Art turns the fallen leaves on the street into living works of art. We want to use Liangzhu’s ecology and landforms to awaken the artistic genes here through curation.


22. 良渚文化村的艺术装置:星空之戒.jpg


森林、大树、草坪、溪涧、河畔,良渚这片拥多重原生地貌与自然形态的空间,融入了大屋顶文化和美院入驻带来的艺术基因,已经具备了优越的活动基底。

我们想在这里打造首届良渚森林艺术节,利用白鹭公园那条隐秘的绿篱带,通过林间密语、虚幻之门、仲夏之梦、星空之戒、任意门、年轮之谜、绿篱街和新月派对等艺术装置,打开艺术之门。通过森林艺术节的举办,活化这个地方,希望这里成为活动庆典的发源地,连接更多的人和事件;希望这里成为艺术院校活动的举办地,让艺术介入村民的日常生活;希望这里成为良渚文艺复兴的发起地,更多的民间艺术在这里亮相……


Forests, big trees, lawns, streams and rivers, Liangzhu, a space with multiple native landforms and natural forms, incorporates the large roof culture and the artistic genes brought by the addition of the Academy of Fine Arts, and already has a superior activity base.

We want to create the first Liangzhu Forest Art Festival here, using the hidden hedge belt of Bailu Park to pass through the secret language of the forest, the gate of illusion, the midsummer dream, the ring of stars, any gate, the mystery of annual rings, and the hedgerow street And the new moon party and other art installations open the door of art.

Through the holding of the Forest Art Festival, this place is revitalized, and it is hoped that this place will become the birthplace of event celebrations, connecting more people and events; it is hoped that this place will be the place where art academies activities are held, so that art can intervene in the daily lives of villagers; hope that this place will become the origin of the Liangzhu Renaissance, more folk art appeared here...


21.良渚文化村的艺术装置:林间密语.jpg


由于时间仓促,除了林间密语和星空之戒两件艺术装置,森林艺术节最终并没有落地。然而我们希望埋下的这颗艺术的种子,未来能在这里生根发芽。也希望未来有更多的机会,通过丰富多彩的活动和事件,去挖掘和塑造更多的“地方”。

Due to the rush of time, except for two art installations, Secret Language in the Forest and Ring of Stars, the Forest Art Festival did not finally land. However, we hope that the planted seeds of art can take root here in the future. I also hope that there will be more opportunities in the future to explore and shape more "places" through a variety of activities and events.





04 地方营造的启示

Enlightenment of place-making

地方营造,最重要的是人的参与。

安道的米家社区改造,通过地方营造的手段来营造社区。让居民参与到改造的过程当中,让居民自己动手画设计图,让居民们像甲方一样提意见和要求,让居民亲自动手参与改造……通过各种方式,将“日常生活的原发地”活化起来,让居民与地方有了更深刻的情感连接,也让外来者有更多的机会了解地方的文化。


Place-making, the most important thing is human participation.

The micro-renewal of Antao’s Mijia community creates a community by means of place-making. Let the residents participate in the micro-update process, let the residents draw their own design drawings, let the residents comment and request like Party A, let the residents participate in the micro-update by themselves...Through various ways, the "birthplace of daily life" will be activated, so that residents and the place have a deeper emotional connection, and also let the outsiders have more opportunities to understand the local culture.




安道的乡村文旅建设,通过地方营造的方式塑造乡村。嘉兴的喜悦农场,创造性地将农业大棚改造为田园生活综合体,成为连接城乡的客厅;成都的奥特莱斯,将乡村的自然和生产价值与城市功能相融合,开启乡村新的生活方式;宁波澥小白自然学校,通过课程与活动挖掘在地文化和在地精神,探索乡村文旅的新出路。

改变、创造价值是地方营造的哲学,也是安道的使命。期望我们能以全新的视角去探索未来城市和乡村的出路,也期待这些探索能给地方的规划者、管理者点滴启发,为人们带来更美好的生活空间、更幸福的生活场景。


The construction of rural cultural tourism in Antao has shaped the countryside through the way of place-making. Xiyue Farm in Jiaxing creatively transforms agricultural greenhouses into a pastoral life complex and becomes a living room connecting urban and rural areas; Outlets in Chengdu integrates rural nature and production values with urban functions to open up a new rural lifestyle; Ningbo Xiexiaobai Nature School explores local culture and spirit through courses and activities, and explores new ways for rural cultural tourism.

Changing and creating value is the philosophy of local creation and also the mission of Antao. We hope that we can explore the future of cities and villages from a new perspective. We also hope that these explorations can inspire local planners and managers, and bring people a better living space and happier life scenes.


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