《景观设计学》2018年第3期作 者：张蕾（Lei ZHANG），杨庭硕（Tingshuo YANG），尹绍亭（Shaoting YIN）等类 别：景观出 版 社：高等教育出版社有限公司出版时间：2018年6月
Green Infrastructure through the Revival of Ancient Wisdom, By Kongjian Yu
Gray infrastructures made of steel and concrete, which we built to connect our physical world, are fragile constructs that are destroying the real and deep connections between human beings and nature, and among various natural processes and flows. The alternative is green infrastructure or ecological infrastructure, the construction of which can be inspired by the ancient wisdom of peasantry. For the past twenty years, I have tried to revive such wisdoms, and combine them with modern sciences and technologies to solve some of the most vexed environmental problems in today’s cities, particularly around water. The solutions are simple, inexpensive, and beautiful, and have been applied on a massive and extensive scale in over two hundred cities in China and beyond.
Gray Infrastructure and Broken Connections
Some people may think that our world, through built infrastructure, is more connected digitally and physically than ever before: we have Facebook and WeChat on the one hand, and ubiquitous highways and pipelines on the other. But actually the opposite is true. Research has proved that more than ever we are disconnected from the communities we belong to, and we have alienated ourselves from our neighbors and from those we love.
Physically, the landscapes that we inhabit are visibly interconnected: motorways connect urban and rural settlements; power lines that transport energy connect power stations to individual families; pipelines that drain waste water connect our toilets to sewage treatment plants; aqueducts that transport drinking water connect reservoirs to our kitchens; airlines that transport food connect the farm in the southern hemisphere to the refrigerators in the north; trucks that carry fertilizers and herbicides on the highways connect city factories in the east with the peasants who farm in the rice paddies in the mountainous west. We have created a connected world, but these connections are false: the landscape matrix and its invisible processes are fragmented and disconnected. The movement and cycles of water, nutrients, food, energy, species, and people are broken. The interconnected relationship between air, water, soil, nutrient, species, and people is being disturbed, and in a harmful way, more than ever before.
Let me offer an example concerning water. Over 75 percent of the surface water in China is polluted; half of China’s cities are facing floods and urban inundation; and over 60 percent of China’s cities do not have enough water for drinking and for other uses. The groundwater table in the North China Plain drops over one meter each year; and over 50 percent of the wetland habitats have been lost in the past fifty years. All these water-cycle related issues that impact our cities and our landscapes are actually interconnected, but the conventional infrastructural solutions designed to solve these problems are fragmented, isolated, and single-minded. We build water treatment plants to remove the nutrients that could be used in fertilizers for farming; billions of dollars are spent yearly on the construction of concrete dikes, dams, and pipes to control floods and stormwaters, but these structures eventually result in fiercer droughts, declines in groundwater levels, and habitat loss; a thousand-mile-long aqueduct built to divert water from Southern to Northern China caused serious damage to the ecosystem in the lower and middle reaches of the Yangtze River Basin; ornamental gardens and landscapes as well as agricultural fields are over-fertilized and all those nutrients flush into the water system, polluting the rivers and the lakes. And again, the conventional solution is single-minded-build expensive water treatment plants that consume huge amounts of energy (mainly from coal burning) to operate, which in turn create more air pollution and water pollution.
An alternative solution might be the construction of green infrastructure, or ecological infrastructure, which creates a deep and true connection between man and nature and among various natural processes and flows.
The Ancient Wisdom of Peasantry
The connections between peasants and their farmlands demonstrate the timeless interdependence of human culture and nature. One alternative to rebuilding deep connections between human beings and nature and among various natural processes comes from the wisdoms of peasantry, such as field-making, irrigating, fertilizing, growing, and harvesting, which have transformed landscapes on a large scale and sustained humanity for thousands of years.
One category of peasantry wisdom is the making of fields through a cut-and-fill action. The peasants’ approach to cut and fill is one integrated action, meaning the earthworks created for farming happen on-site, with minimum costs for labor and minimum material transportation. It has, therefore, a minimum impact on the natural processes and patterns in the region. This tactic has been implemented by peasants in almost all parts of the world as a way to transform their otherwise unsuitable environments into productive and livable landscapes.
The second category of ancient peasantry wisdom lies in managing water and irrigating the fields. Modern methods of irrigation used in both farming and landscaping are represented by a system of pipes and pumps that is nearly invisible. It does not relate to surrounding terrain and available water resources. The peasants’ approach to irrigation is deeply rooted in natural processes and patterns. Thousands of years of farming experience has made irrigation one of the most sophisticated techniques in agricultural societies. The use of gravity to irrigate the field requires precise knowledge, and the harmony between nature and subtle human intervention can turn such a serious science into an art form, an interactive medium of community building, and even a spiritual force.
The third category of peasantry wisdom is fertilizing. It is a magical component of traditional farming and a critical link, closing the circle by reusing the materials of human living. All wastes from humans and domestic animals as well as vegetative materials are recycled into fertilizers. Such a nutrient cycle is broken in our urbanized and industrialized settings. What peasants call fertilizers is today defined as “pollutants” in our lakes and rivers.
The fourth category of peasantry wisdom is growing and harvesting. Unlike planting and pruning in gardening to create a pleasant ornamental form, the peasants’ approach to planting is focused on productivity. Planting begins with the sowing of seeds, and the management process follows nature’s rhythm as a strategy of adaptation to the surrounding climate and conditions. Again, the self-sufficient nature of ancient agricultural economies requires each household to grow diverse crops, including grains, vegetables, and fruits, and those which could be processed into fibers, medicines, timber, fuel, and even fertilizers proportionately to families’ seasonal needs, and within the limits of nature and human capabilities. The meaning of harvest goes far beyond the production of foods and products. Harvests are productive in terms of their capacity to enrich the soil, purify the water, and make the land healthy. In other words, the peasants’ fields are net producers instead of net consumers of energy and resources.
This is not to say that one should give up the comfort of urbanization and go back to a peasant’s primitive life. These essential features of peasantry illuminate the underlying basis for rebuilding the connections between nature and human desires and balancing natural processes and cultural intervention, and help us reclaim the harmonious relationships between human beings and nature.
Revival of the Ancient Wisdom to Create an Alternative Infrastructure
Imagine what our cities would look like if we did not drain rainwater away through pipes and pumps, but instead used the ancient wisdom of peasantry in field-making to create a green sponge in the city that retains the rainwater, supporting diverse habitats and recharging the aquifer. In this way, the green spaces in the city become an ecological infrastructure that provides multiple ecosystem services, regulating the urban environment to be resilient to flood or drought and allowing clean water and food to be produced right in the middle of the city. Biodiversity would be enhanced dramatically; urban residents would have a green network for jogging, commuting, and relaxing; and real estate values would increase because of the beauty of, and access to, nature! That is what we have tried to do in many cities in the past twenty years: to transform the city into a sponge city.
Imagine what our cities would look like if we abandon the high and rigid concrete flood walls, and instead revive the ancient wisdom of peasantry and create vegetated terraces at the river banks that adapt to the up and down of the water flow. Eco-friendly solutions like ponds and low weirs are designed to slow down the flow of water and let nature take time to nourish itself, so that diverse habitats can be created that enrich vegetation and wild life, allowing nutrients to be absorbed by the biological processes! That is what we have done to restore rivers and lakes in many Chinese cities.
Imagine what our cities would look like if the nutrient-rich (eutrophic) river and lake water could be cleansed through the landscape as a living system, in the way that peasants have recycled organic waste, instead of using expensive sewage plants to remove the nutrients. We could produce clean water and nourish the lush vegetation. Native biodiversity could be improved. We could turn recreational spaces into urban parks and, in this way, urban green spaces could become producers instead of consumers of energy and water. That is what we have done to transform polluted water bodies into landscapes as living systems.
Imagine what our cities would look like if industrial brown fields are recovered by the processes of nature, where the ancient wisdom of the pond-and-dyke system is adapted to create a terrain that collects rainwater (instead of draining it away through pipes) and initiates the evolution of a plant community, remediating the contaminated soil during this process. At the same time, the industrial structures are preserved as sites of cultural heritage in the city. A unique landscape is created, featuring dynamic native vegetation and a touchable memory of the past, which attract urban residents for its beauty as well as the diverse wild life. This is what we have done in several industrial cities.
Imagine what our cities would look like if we turn some of the urban land back into productive landscapes instead of into expensive lawns or ornamental gardens, so that the long-distance transportation of food can be reduced. Let the rice, sunflowers, and beans be grown in the city, let the sun and moon tell the time for sowing and harvesting, let the seasonal changes be noticed by the urban residents, let the process of food growing be known to the young, and let the beauty of crops be appreciated! This will not only make our city more productive and sustainable, but nourish a new aesthetic and a new ethics of land and food. This is what we have done in some Chinese cites.
By reviving the ancient wisdoms of field making, irrigating, fertilizing, growing, and harvesting, and integrating these wisdoms with the contemporary sciences and arts, we are able to build alternative infrastructures, nature-based green infrastructures to replace the conventional gray infrastructures, to solve some of the problems in today’s urban environment, particularly around water. Living with nature is inexpensive and easy, comfortable and beautiful, and is an art of survival.
This article was first published in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences Bulletin in 2017.
【英文刊名】Landscape Architecture Frontiers • Traditional Wisdom and Ecological Restoration
【作者】张蕾（Lei ZHANG），杨庭硕（Tingshuo YANG），尹绍亭（Shaoting YIN）等
LA PKU’s Research on China’s Traditional Eco-Wisdom and Related Application in Contemporary Landscape Planning and Design
作者：张蕾 Lei ZHANG
Since 1997, LA PKU has conducted a series of studies on China’s traditional ecological wisdom and related application in contemporary landscape planning and design. This paper first reviews the background and the course of LA PKU’s research: In early years, they studied on Feng-shui and vernacular landscapes that stemmed from their understanding and response to local natural and human processes in planning and design practice; In 2006, Kongjian Yu proposed the concept that Landscape Architecture is a discipline concentrating on the art of survival, which has greatly promoted the study and revival of traditional eco-wisdom, not only providing a historical base for the modern development of Landscape Architecture, but also applying the research results in responding to contemporary environmental and ecological problems; In 2014, developed upon the achievement on the art of survival, LA PKU further explored the deep form of China’s traditional landscapes by studying local spatial forms and design strategies on micro- and site-scales and translating such ecological solutions into China’s contemporary landscape design. The paper also reviews on LA PKU’s important research results over the past two decades, including traditional agricultural landscapes, vernacular settlements, and traditional water-adaptive landscapes.
LA PKU; Ecological Wisdom; Landscape Planning and Design; Vernacular Landscape; Art of Survival; Water-Adaptive Landscape
Adapting Traditional Wisdom for Present-day Use
作者：杨庭硕 Tingshuo YANG
Tingshuo Yang, the interviewee, is an anthropologist and ethnologist. He defines traditions from a perspective of human society development and points out that there are three spheres of traditions, including the ones respectively related to inorganic nature, organic ecosystems, and social customs. Traditions in such three spheres are under independent development laws and cycles, while influencing each other. The interviewee also distinguishes traditional knowledge from traditional wisdom and emphasizes that traditional wisdom is complex in dimensions and rich in contents which requires us to examine and define traditional wisdom with a dialectical, developing outlook. He further underlines the significance of applying the wisdoms in traditions though under nowadays unceasing scientific and technological advance. Finally, Yang argues that how to reactivate and apply such wisdoms for present-day use is one of the pressing and necessary tasks that we are facing today.
Traditional Wisdom; Knowledge; Human Social Development; Ecological Civilization Construction
Learning from Ecological Anthropology and Acculturation Studies
作者：尹绍亭 Shaoting YIN
Disciplines from Ethnography, Geography, Ethnology, and Anthropology to Cultural Ecology and Ecological Anthropology have studied the development of human-nature relationships. Ecological Anthropology, which takes ecosystem theories as the analysis tools and acculturation as the core concept, has concentrated on the local knowledge of enclosed territories and the traditional knowledge and wisdom of acculturation. In an era of rapid-development, the local knowledge brought to light by Ecological Anthropology, and the discipline itself, are faced with challenges. The interviewee, Shaoting Yin, clarified the origins and scope of Ecological Anthropology and emphasized the efforts that should be made to understand how accrued local knowledge can be passed down. He also suggested how Ecological Anthropology can continue to develop and change.
Ecological Anthropology; Acculturation; Local Knowledge; Environment; Tradition
Construction Practices from the Perspective of Tribal Civilization
作者：谢英俊 Ying-Chun HSIEN
This interview discusses the practice of house building in rural areas and opinions of tribal civilization. Through cooperative building projects in Lankao County, He’nan Province and post-earthquake reconstruction in Yangliu Village of Mao County, Sichuan Province, Ying-Chun Hsieh, the interviewee, explained the importance of sustainability, which is the core principle of construction, and the public participation in community rebuilding. He believed that, from the perspective of tribal civilization and the dimension of scarcity, by reducing the importance of the “expert” designer, and adopting open system, simple techniques, and digitalized approaches, public participation could be promoted and a better integration of traditional wisdom in building and society construction could be achieved.
Scarcity; Sustainability; Tradition; Tribal Civilization; Digitalization; Public Participation
Inheritance and Innovation in Ecological Practice — Report on the Forum of the Committee of Landscape Architecture, Chinese Society for Urban Studies
作者：《景观设计学》编辑部 Landscape Architecture Frontiers
On January 21, 2018, the Forum of the Committee of Landscape Architecture, Chinese Society for Urban Studies was held at the College of Architecture and Landscape in Peking University. More than 30 participants from the fields of landscape, ecology, water management, and planning exchanged ideas on the current Beautiful China and Ecological Civilization Construction movements, as well as the development of Landscape Architecture and interdisciplinary and multi-professional collaborations. A consensus on the urgency and necessity of collaborative ecological practices, while an acknowledgement on the difficulties of such work, was reached. Specifically, problems of competitiveness and responsibility remain in the interdisciplinary practice; and the discipline of landscape architecture currently fails to identify its strengths. Thus, landscape architecture needs to actively promote disciplinary and industrial integration to meet contemporary needs.
Landscape Architecture; Beautiful China; Ecological Civilization Construction; Interdisciplinary Collaboration; Cross-industry Collaboration
Marker Wadden, The Netherlands: A Building-with-Nature Exploration
作者：熊亮，瑞克·德·菲索 Liang XIONG，Rik de VISSER
The Marker Wadden finds a good balance between traditional wisdom and technology advance. On the one hand, based on the polder model, a traditional consensus way of planning and decision-making in the Netherlands, the Marker Wadden project is created by an alliance of both public and private bodies sitting together and their opinions acknowledged. On the other hand, it boldly explores in both philosophy and technique, and a new nature has been achieved by using innovative techniques and natural processes. Marker Wadden will be of great importance in a time of climate change. Wetland design and construction can contribute to sustainable water management, improve local ecosystems, and provide greater resilience of river deltas in storms and floods.
The Markermeer; Polder Model; Silt; Archipelago; Building with Nature; Habitat Restoration; Design by Research
Multi-Functional Wetland Design Adaptive to Environmental Changes — Wetland Ecosystem Construction of Furongba Bay in Hanfeng Lake of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area
作者：袁嘉，袁兴中，王晓峰，熊森，刘杨靖 Jia YUAN，Xiongzhong YUAN，Xiaofeng WANG，Sen XIONG，Yangjing LIU
Hanfeng Lake, an inland lake formed by the seasonal water fluctuations due to the water storage and sluice in the Three Gorges Reservoir, was faced with ecological challenges such as water pollution, aquatic biodiversity loss, and changes in land use pattern. This article takes the wetland ecosystem construction in Furongba Bay, Hanfeng Lake as an example to explore approaches to designing multi-functional wetlands which could adapt to hydro-fluctuation and other environmental changes, by drawing from the ecological wisdoms of water regulation, conservancy, and utilization developed in the agrarian age of China to support a dynamic, multi-layered landscape of mutualism and co-evolution.
Multi-Functional Wetland; Ecosystem; Traditional Ecological Wisdom; Hanfeng Lake; Hydro-Fluctuation Zone; The Three Gorges Reservoir Area
From an Ignored Grey Place to a Resilient Urban Wetland — Dong’an Wetland Park in Sanya, Hainan Province
作者：拜真，俞文宇，张喻，董恬祎，林国雄 Zhen BAI, Wenyu YU, Yu ZHANG, Tianyi DONG, Guoxiong LIN
The Dong’an Wetland was designated as the site for one of Sanya’s first pilot projects of urban environmental remediation and ecological restoration because of its key position in the regional ecological pattern, especially for urban stormwater management. The project aims at integrating leisure and recreational functions with landscape elements including ponds, forest on water, terraced vegetable garden, and trail loop, while promoting water circulation, improving water quality, and retaining rainwater and regulating water reuse, acting as a resilient urban sponge for rainwater management. The newly built project transforms an ignored grey place into a new home for egrets, an outdoor classroom for children’s nature education, and a destination for citizens to evoke their memories.
Sponge City Construction and Underground Corridor-System Construction; Urban Environmental Remediation and Ecological Restoration; Resilient Sponge; Habitat; Biodiversity; Nostalgia
Productive Landscape Design for the Rural River Channels in Shigang Town of Nantong, Jiangsu Province
作者：金晶，江丽，黄奕涵，华莎 Jing JIN, Li JIANG, Yihan HUANG, Sha HUA
In the rural south of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, river channels, which provide locals with space for living and production, are currently faced with problems such as featureless landscape and environmental degradation due to rapid social and economic development. Inspired by the traditional riverfront production pattern, this project aims at ecological restoration and environment protection by creating experiencing productive landscape in the Fishery Bay of Shigang Town, Nantong, Jiangsu Province, and integrating production, living, and ecology on the site as a whole.
Rural River Channel; Ecological Restoration; Riverfront Production Pattern; Nostalgia; Experiencing Productive Landscape
Emerging Hybridity and the New Vernacular Landscape
作者：丹尼·卡尔森 Dane Carlson
The vernacular landscape, defined by pragmatic adaptation, must shift from subject of scholarship to realm of design operations. The vernacular is dynamic, constantly redefined at the intersections of continuity and change. It provides the necessary foundations for a discipline expanding in pursuit of resiliency and adaptive response. The landscape of Nepal’s Mustang district, peripheral to the Nepali state for most of its history, is being shaken by seismic economic, infrastructural, and demographic shifts. In response to emerging continuities and discontinuities, its landscape is being remade as a hybrid landscape, a new vernacular. This practice of hybridization must continue to evolve where new resources and opportunities emerge at the intersections of continuity and change.
Vernacular Landscape; Hybridity; Nepal; Continuity and Change; Agency; Adaptive Response
Local Knowledge of Swidden Farmers and Challenges for Sustainable Land Use: Lessons from a Watershed Management Project in Northern Laos
作者：里见·东 Satomi HIGASHI
In Laos, located in mainland Southeast Asia, shifting cultivation has been one of the important means of livelihood, in terms of food security as well as religious and cultural anchorage, for local communities in a number of areas, especially in upland areas in the country.
In Pakbeng District, Oudomxay Province, northern Laos, due to the implementation of various land and forest management policies and a village relocation and consolidation program, local communities were restricted from access to the forests and faced a shortage of agricultural lands. After facing difficulties in securing sufficient lands, the local farmers used the forests in a destructive manner.
The author of this article was engaged with the Community-based Watershed Management Project, as a program director of an environmental NGO and tackled challenges to achieve a land and forest management system suitable for land use by local communities. The NGO attempted to apply an alternative approach to incorporate swidden farmers’ land use system into official land and forest management institutions.
Shifting Cultivation; Upland Farmers; Land and Forest Management Policies; Laos; NGO