《景观设计学》2018年第5期作 者：布鲁诺·德·缪德尔（Bruno De MEULDER），凯利·香农（Kelly SHANNON），曾颖（ZENG Ying）等类 别：景观出 版 社：高等教育出版社有限公司出版时间：2018年10月
Mourning the Deaths of Four Landscape Masters: Promoting Practical Research and Innovation in Education, By Yu Kongjian
I left Barcelona on September 29. At six a.m., one and a half hours before the sunrise, the Spanish architecture Professor Vicent Gullaret was taking me to the Serra de Collserola, to the under construction second campus of the Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia (IAAC). A decade ago, Gullaret bought this beautiful parcel of woodland overlooking the town in an auction for more than two million euros. Thus far, a 14th century church has been transformed to a school building with classrooms, dormitories, laboratories, and indoor farms. The lab was filled with 3D printers, robotic devices, and hydrological modeling gear. The experimental installations and 3D printed sculptures melted harmoniously into the woodland where poultry were walking inside. Because of Gullaret’s interest in urban ecological design, he led an exhibit on “Ecologías Urbanas” as part of the 2018 Beijing International Design Week, on which his and my works reﬂecting the concept of sustainable and ecological design were shown. In fact, he had returned from Beijing the night prior, while I was leaving Barcelona for Beijing this morning. In our brief time together, we drove up the mountain to tour his new campus. By the time the sun came out, we were heading back down the mountain and I was heading to the airport.
Despite the lack of time and light, what I saw impressed me in several ways. The beautiful woodland, the location overlooking the city of Barcelona, the aroma of oak, the vision and support of the government, and the inspiring idea of merging school building and the laboratory. But I was most inspired by the passion and dedication of Professor Gullaret. In addition to undertaking international projects, he has been the Chief Architect of the Barcelona City Council for four years. As part of this position, he has invited the world’s best designers to contribute to the construction of Barcelona. Disappointed by the architectural and design education available 20 years ago in Barcelona, he founded a new design school with the goal of training a new generation of designers who would be skilled in innovative and adaptive urban construction and technological development. Today, the school has thousands of undergraduate students from over fifty countries. Tuition supports the school’s facilities, and instead of hiring permanent tutors, the school hires active designers from around the world. Professor Gullaret also continues to teach and practice. He has said that teaching is also learning and research, and that design practice is the application and testing of new knowledge and technology.
The integration of teaching and research spurred memories of four landscape architects who passed away in 2018. All were my mentors and friends and all contributed to the development of Chinese Landscape Architecture education. Mourning their deaths, I remind Landscape Architectural practitioners by continuing their examples of actively promoting innovative practice as research and generous education.
First, Sun Xiao Xiang (May 29, 1921 – May 4, 2018, age 97), Professor of the Landscape Architecture School of Beijing Forestry University, was one of the famed pioneers of modern landscape design and theoretical study in China. He was also one of my tutors when I was a student, who had a great inﬂuence on my understanding of the landscape profession. His outstanding contribution to Landscape Architecture of China shines in both practice and theory: He creatively introduced the approaches and techniques of natural landscape making into the design of public green space such as urban parks, evidenced by his masterpiece Viewing Fish at Flower Pond in Hangzhou, for example. In his works, he always emphasized an integration of providing habitats, building scenes, and creating atmosphere, combining landscape design with ecological and aesthetic considerations. He expanded the disciplinary study scope of Landscape Architecture by defining Landscape Planning as a global-scaled territorial planning science, which greatly enriched landscape practice and research subjects from making scenes and gardens towards intervening and improving earthscape. All his innovations in teaching and theoretical research were deeply rooted his awareness of landscape and living experience in villages of Zhejiang Province when he was young, and got continuously fostered during his lifelong practice in landscape planning and fine arts.
Second, Professor Richard Haag (Oct. 23, 1923 – Sept. 5, 2018, age 95), was the founder of the Department of Landscape Architecture at the University of Washington in Seattle, USA. Haag received his MLA from Harvard University in 1952. After working for Thomas Church for two years, Haag set up his own design studio. In 1957, with his six years of practical experience and the support and encouragement of Lawrence Halprin, Haag began teaching at the School of Architecture and Urban Planning of University of Washington. In response to teaching landscape architecture to architects and planners, he then established the Department of Landscape Architecture. Until the closure of his studio in 2016, Haag and his team designed more than 500 projects, the most famous of which is Gas Works Park in Seattle. Gas Works Park initiated the reuse of post-industrial landscapes as public spaces and its concept and design deeply inﬂuenced my own work, including Qijiang Park in Zhongshan City. Haag had great concern for the ecological and environmental problems facing urban communities and his work considered how design could engender environmental stewardship. In the 1970s when the Seattle Gas Works Plant was facing demolition, Haag advocated for its industrial heritage to be preserved and reused. He pioneered controversial ideas such as remediating the contaminated soil and emphasizing building place-specifc landscapes through the biological succession of native vegetation. Although these ideas were controversial at that time, they are widely accepted by the American industry to this day. The integration of practical experience with theory and history continues to characterize the University of Washington’s Landscape Architecture program. Earlier in his life, at the age of 18, Haag was a member of the famous “Flying Tigers,” who helped China fight against Japan. He trained many Chinese landscape architects as an educator. During many of our exchanges, I felt his worry about China’s ecological condition. At our last meet in 2014, He stared at me, telling me that I “get to fix it.” These words have been supporting my work. His achievements as a designer and educator set a standard we can only hope to achieve.
Third, Israeli architect and landscape architect, Shlomo Aronson (Nov. 27, 1936 – Sept. 12, 2018, age 82) has a similar educational background to Haag. After obtaining a bachelor’s and a master’s degree in Landscape Architecture from the University of California at Berkeley and Harvard University in 1963 and 1966, respectively, he worked with Lawrence Halprin before returning to Israel in 1969. Once back in Israel he established his own design studio and became one of the most inﬂuential landscape architects in Israel. I first met him at the 2005 Annual Meeting of American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA), where we were both being honored. From 2009 to 2010, we together held a six-person “Return to Landscape” exhibition at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Berlin, Germany. Aronson’s design approach was rooted in the natural and cultural heritage of Israel, allowing Landscape Architecture to define national, regional and cultural identity. The Israeli garden he designed for the 1999 Kunming World Expo was one example of how he highlighted the cultural characteristics of Israel. His knowledge and experience of innovative practice contributed to the education of a second generation of landscape architects. Since 1979, he has taught at the Department of Architecture at the University of Jerusalem, the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University, and the Institute of Urban and Regional Sciences at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. His exploration of regional characteristics and responses to social issues cemented him as a representative in the field of cultural and regional landscapes, and injected new blood into the education of Landscape Architecture.
Danish landscape architect Jeppe Aagard Andersen (Jan. 30, 1952 – Apr. 22, 2018, age 66) passed away far too young. Andersen graduated from the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in 1980 majoring in Architecture and Landscape Architecture. Andersen’s father was an artist and he was inﬂuenced by art from an early age. His landscape work evoked many artistic qualities. In 1987, Andersen established his design studio. He believed that landscape architecture is an artistic creation, regardless of its size, and it is an artistic conception of everyday living environment. Through the use of stained steel, wood, stone, and turf in everyday landscapes, his work had clear space and minimalist lines that have come to represent a new generation of Nordic landscape design. In September 2011, Andersen took me on full day tours of his works in Copenhagen, Denmark and Malmö, Sweden. I was touched by his approach and also learned he had taught many Chinese students at Lund University in Sweden. In 2014, he became a full-time professor at the Oslo School of Architecture and Design, Norway, where he established a fve-year master’s degree in landscape architecture and passed on his lifelong exploration of landscape and art onto students from all over the world. In accordance with his will, his family has set up a Jeppe Aagard Andersen Travel Fund to fund students on international study tours around the world.
Together, these four landscape masters were not only seen as icons in their ages and countries, but also had a great inﬂuence on contemporary landscape design, practice, and education. Each was keenly aware of social and environmental issues, and proposed innovative solutions. Like other sages of international landscape architecture such as Olmsted and McHarg, their innovations in practice translated into education. It is because of this return of knowledge that the discipline of Landscape Architecture can flourish! The new IAAC campus I witnessed in this morning, as well as the passion and dedication I felt from Vicent Gullarett, made me hopeful for the future of practical research and innovative education. Although these great designers are no longer with us, the development of Landscape Architecture aiming to create a better living environment is full of hope, just like the rising sun.
【英文刊名】Landscape Architecture Frontiers • Research and Pedagogical Innovation
【作者】布鲁诺·德·缪德尔（Bruno De MEULDER），凯利·香农（Kelly SHANNON），曾颖（ZENG Ying）等
Designing Ecologies for Resilient Urbanisms
作者：布鲁诺·德·缪德尔，凯利·香农 Bruno De MEULDER, Kelly SHANNON
This article encapsulates the recent work of OSA, a practice-based urbanism situated in an academic environment (KU Leuven, Belgium). In the contemporary era of increased social, ecological, and spatial injustices, OSA’s work attempts to create resilient urbanisms through designing robust ecologies. Its worldwide sites of research and interventions are primarily addressed through three themes: water urbanisms, forest urbanisms, and creating new social ecologies as resistance. The first part of the article provides an overview of the ambitions of OSA with a number of examples. The second component consists of four excerpts of recent and on-going design research.
Onderzoeksgroep Stedenbouw en Architectuur; Practice-Based Design Research; Water Urbanisms; Forest Urbanisms; Social Ecologies; Resistance
Body-Scale Perception and Experience: A Terrain-Based Foundation Studio of Landscape Architecture
作者：曾颖 ZENG Ying
Traditional design education and training in china, including Environmental Art and Landscape Architecture, is essentially grafted from methods of architectural painting. The time has come to reexamine and reflect that is it appropriate to borrow teaching methods directly from Architecture and are there other methods that are developed from the intrinsic qualities of Landscape Architecture and can be used for disciplinary teaching? This article introduces a set of methods of terrain based field investigation and site documentation, including outlining, mapping, representation, and intervention, which were developed by the author for a design studio in the Department of Landscape Architecture, School of Architecture at the China Academy of Art. The perception of landscape through multiple senses and the exploration on the unseen causes of appearance, as well as the relationships and connections within the terrain, are emphasized in such training.
Landscape Architecture; Terrain; Experience; Body; Pedagogy
Integrated Teaching and Practice: Green Infrastructure Planning and Green Roof Performance in a Semi-Arid Campus Environment, USA
作者：杨波，南希·曼斯尼尔，麦克肯纳·德鲁，大卫·杜非 YANG Bo, Nancy MESNER, McKenna DREW, David DURFEE
This paper presents an integrated education and research program that involves extensive participation from stakeholders on campus and beyond. The resultant water conscious design proposal promotes efficient stormwater management on Utah State University’s campus, situated in the semi-arid Intermountain West. Utah State has adopted various “green” solutions for stormwater management, such as directing most campus runoff to recharge groundwater. Yet, there is no comprehensive plan that lays out its sustainable practices, and little quantitative assessment of the design performance has been performed. In accord with the University campus Master Plan of 2011 and campus Sustainability Plan 2013-2020, this paper addresses this gap and proposes a series of green infrastructure strategies that make use of rain as a resource, and that can be implemented across campus in three phases. A built green roof project is part of the Phase I master plan. Pilot performance data are presented regarding stormwater runoff and temperature reduction on a green roof surface versus an adjacent test-bed asphalt roof. In summary, the paper provides a holistic approach toward adopting green infrastructure designs and assessing green infrastructure performance in the less evaluated semi-arid climatic conditions, and it serves as an example of research through design process.
Climate Resilience; Utah; Green Infrastructure; Stormwater Management; Educational Experience; Pedagogical Innovation
A Reflective Practitioner’s View of Teaching and Pragmatism in Research
作者：弗雷德里克·斯坦纳 Frederick STEINER
In this article, Frederick Steiner, the interviewee, introduced the teaching system of PennDesign and its strengths and innovations, and explained the relationship between research, education, and practice based on his rich teaching and practice experience. He also gave suggestions about how to optimize the Landscape Architecture education and curriculum to keep up with the changing world. Steiner indicated that both the Sustainable SITES Initiative which he has made great efforts on and his latest book Making Plans can contribute to the professional training and public education. When it came to significant issues or promising topics that Landscape Architecture professionals need to pay more attention on the future, Steiner called for focus on the role of Landscape Architecture in the city, and climate changes and settlements to vulnerable populations, and highlighted the importance of taking a long view and designing with time.
Landscape Architecture Education; Curriculum; Practice; Research; Practitioner
Bridging the Gaps between Landscape Design Practice and Scientific Research: A Graphical Interpretation
作者：王志芳 WANG Zhifang
Practitioners in the fields of landscape planning and design seem less taking advantage of, or even paying no attention to, existing findings of scientific research in other disciplines; and, they often conduct so-called “transdisciplinary” study on their own, but most of the outcomes are uncompetitive with those proven research findings in relevant fields. The author believed that it is essentially resulted from several dislocations between landscape practice and modern scientific research, that are, the gaps between holism and deconstruction, elements and functions, as well as graphics and texts. To bridge such gaps, this article puts forward two solutions: one is problem-finding and -addressing, and the other is synthesizing and visualization of research results, particularly through graphical interpretation.
Interface between Research and Practice; Planning and Design; Practice Research; Dislocation
Reflections on Practice-Oriented Architectural Design Teaching — The CAUP Special Program “Home Above Market” at Tongji University
作者：王方戟 WANG Fangji
This interview centers in an architectural design program titled “Home Above Market,” which is one of the special programs of the College of Architecture and Urban Planning at Tongji University for junior experimental classes since 2012. As an innovative teaching practice that combines multiple specialties and spans a long-time period, this program reflects and accumulates its knowledge and experience through a documentary book series. Wang Fangji, the interviewee, is the teaching director of the Home Above Market program and the leading author of the book series, who also enjoys a high reputation in China’s architectural design education. He points out that this program aims at encouraging students to observe and care about ordinary urban and social environment that is often neglected in current architectural education. He further argues that problem-finding and -addressing capability training is important to architectural students, which would help stimulate a more vibrant exploration of China’s urban architecture.
Local Market; Architecture; Design Teaching; Pedagogical Innovation; Tongji University
Thoughts on Design Education in China: From Classroom to Workshop
作者：何志森，李迪华，刘悦来，汪原 Jason HO, LI Dihua, LIU Yuelai, WANG Yuan
Li Dihua from Peking University, Jason Ho, Founder of the Mapping Workshop, Liu Yulai from Tongji University, and Wang Yuan from Huazhong University of Science and Technology were guest instructors at the 2018 Mapping & Making Summer Workshop of National College Student Campus Building Alliance. They each work on bringing new ideas to traditional design education. In this interview they shared their opinions on current design education and teaching in China. They believe that design education in China is currently at a point of crisis where both instructors and students need to be aware of the urgency to change. However, little attention has been given to the improvement of design education, nor has a discourse to explore a future direction been built. The interviewees approached the workshop as an opportunity for students and educators to see new possibilities in design education. Meanwhile, they hope to develop students’ curiosity and confidence in observation, exploration, independent thinking, and evidential design.
Design Education; Educational Crisis; Enlightenment; Pedagogy; Criticism
Teaching Exploration on Bridging Theories with Practice of Landscape Ecological Planning and Design: Illustrated Principles of Landscape Ecological Planning and Design
作者：岳邦瑞，费凡YUE Bangrui, FEI Fan
By reviewing the structure of the book Illustrated Principles of Landscape Ecological Planning and Design, this article reexamines the relationship between theoretical study, teaching, and practice in landscape ecological planning and design. It first explores how to apply the principles of ecological sciences (and other relevant disciplines) into related research, teaching, and practice of landscape ecological planning and design. The authors put forward a multi-level research system that integrates fundamental theories, application bases, and practice, in order to bridge ecological principles with planning and design practice. In addition, based on this landscape ecological planning and design system, the authors developed a T-P-C Approach, a universal operating procedure that links up Theories, Patterns or Principles, and Practice Cases and centers in spatial principles. Through a reader sampling survey, the research system of landscape ecological planning and design is refined and improved based on audience’s comments.
Landscape Architecture; Ecology; Planning and Design; Landscape Ecology
An Evidence-Based Methodology for Landscape Design
作者：黎鹏志，刘博新，高翼文 LI Pengzhi, LIU Boxin, GAO Yiwen
As a design method supported by scientific knowledge and findings, evidence-based design now is widely applied in the field of architectural and landscape design. This design process makes architects and landscape designers’ decisions about built environment sound and reliable. Combining two practice cases — the Urban Ecological Corridor Planning of College Station of Texas, a regional planning project, and Landscape Design of the Yangpu Bridge Park in Shanghai, an urban public space project — this article illustrates the concept and process of key issue identification and response, a pivotal step in evidence-based design, and points out the challenges in related applications of this method.
Evidence-Based Design; Key Issues; Design Decisions; Research; Landscape Design Practice
Ecological Design in the Perspective of Complexity — Conceptual Design of Nomadic Landscape in Hulunbuir
作者：刘京一，张梦晗 LIU Jingyi, ZHANG Menghan
As ecological design gradually goes beyond environmental protection or resource conservation towards an activity of creating and managing complex systems, researchers and designers have been increasingly looking for design methods from complexity science. Currently, complexity theories have been widely applied in generating complex forms and establishing design process models. Some designers have further integrated complexity theories with design culture through metaphors. In such context, this article attempts to explore application of ecological design methods under a perspective of complexity science. This article describes a conceptual design for Hulunbuir nomadic landscape, which reveals potential relationships between multiple factors and helps define design strategies with a kind of datascape. The design process draws on complex system design methods featuring a bottom-up process through nested hierarchies and tries to apply an alternative selecting framework and a feedback-learning system for a more tangible implementation and management.
Ecological Design; Complexity; Nested Scale; Bottom-Up; Alternative Futures
Incubating Innovation in Practice: Research Models from Architecture, Engineering, and Landscape Architecture
As our cities and environments become more complex and face unprecedented challenges, it is no longer sufficient to design for aesthetics alone. Urban design, landscape architecture, and planning now demand going beyond typical design services to support deeper insights via foresight, research, experimentation, and innovative advocacy. SWA is one example of addressing these emerging complexities through two-year-old XL Lab, the firm’s platform for structured research and innovation projects. XL Lab differs and shares attributes with dedicated research teams in firms from allied fields such as architecture and engineering, where research entities that inform practice have been operating for longer than in landscape architecture. This article discusses the need for research in design now, what factors formed distinct research and innovation teams across the industry, their models and approaches, and how firms identify and prioritize research themes or issues taking XL Lab and another two research teams as examples.
Practice-Based Research; Innovation; Research; Foresight; Visualization and Simulation
Tools and Alpine Landscapes: An Approach to Inquiring into Mount Gongga Routes
作者：李宾 LI Bin
中国的高寒山区曾经是地图上的未知之地，这其中就包括贡嘎山— 高于成都平原7 000m的横断山脉的最高峰。贡嘎山正在经历着访客的剧增、基础设施的更新，以及路线的重塑，成为在城乡转型背景下探讨如何通过策划高山景观路线与停留场所来应对未来变化的一个典型区域。由于地理位置偏远，这座高山对于景观设计师和研究者们而言是空白的。地形突起拉伸且压缩了其景观层次，也干预着田野观察。在挪威奥斯陆建筑与设计学院于特罗姆瑟市开设的景观设计学硕士课程“高处胜寒：从北极地到极高山”中，师生们尝试了一种混合的研究高山景观的方式：以主题式的高山绘图和田野工作框架为工具, 从挪威的高山区域入手调查了贡嘎山。课程藉此对未来的停留场所和路线提出初步构想，并在北挪威美术馆举办展览，对这一跨地域的景观研究成果进行了反思式的展示。
Chinese high cold mountains had long been an undiscovered terrain on maps. One of them was Mount Gongga, the highest peak of the Hengduan Mountain Ranges, elevated seven thousand meters above the Chengdu Plain. Mount Gongga has been experiencing visitor blooming, infrastructure updating, and route reshaping, making it a representative case study to examine how landscape routes and pauses can be curated for future changes in ongoing rural-urban transitions. Geographical remoteness keeps this high mountain a white spot to landscape architects and researchers. Topographic prominence stretches and condenses alpine landscape layers and intervenes field observations. "Trans-Alpine: From the Polar to the Peak", a Master of Landscape Architecture design studio at the Oslo School of Architecture and Design locating in Tromsø, experimented with an approach to inquiring into Mount Gongga from Norwegian alpine zones: a combination of research tools including thematic alpine mapping and fieldwork framework. The tool outcomes informed the landscape researchers to further imagine future pausing or route scenarios. Some of the results were curated in an exhibition space at the Nordnorsk Kunstmuseum, as a reflective display of this landscape exploration across two geographies.
Alpine Landscape; Tool; Alpine Mapping; Fieldwork Framework; Curating; Landscape Route
Inheritance and Innovation of Local Resources — Square of Collective Memory in Xianniangxi Village
作者：郭子怡 KUO Jze Yi
Through local culture and customs, we can see the relationship between human beings and nature, the humanity, morality, and value, the authenticity of life, and the wisdom of local folklore. Can Architecture and the contemporary architectural practices learn from local wisdoms to develop culturally sustainable local architectural concepts and methods? What is the significance of these methods for the development of rural communities? Since 2015, Kuo Jze Yi, assistant professor from the School of Architecture and Urban Planning at Shenzhen University, has continued to work in different villages in provinces such as Sichuan, Guangdong, Shandong and Henan, with research assistants, students, and local collaborators, combining teaching, research, and practical methods. In a participatory design approach, they allied with villagers and tried to use local resources to build public spaces that inherit local culture. Taking the Square of Collective Memory in Xianniangxi village designed during 2017 and 2018 as a case study, this article examines the teaching, research, and practice outcomes of participatory design approach, and suggests methods of inheritance and innovation of local resources.
Rural Resources; Local Wisdom; Participatory Design; Community Development; Inheritance and Innovation