《景观设计学》2018年第6期作 者：盖伦·纽曼（Galen NEWMAN），黎东莹（LI Dongying），朱芮（ZHU Rui）等类 别：景观出 版 社：高等教育出版社有限公司出版时间：2018年12月
The Logic of “lucid Waters and Lush Mountains are Invaluable Assets”, By Yu Kongjian
During the Spring Festival ten years ago, the three families — Pang Wei, Li Dihua and myself — drove along the Duliujiang River from Guilin, Guangxi, to Changsha, Hu’nan. The beautiful scenery and the gorgeous local culture along the way made us feel like it was the “Peach Blossom Spring.” “In a few years, all of this will no longer exist.” Pang Wei whispered to me. When we were passing through Yangshuo, Guangxi, I read a beautiful article, Implementing the Three People’s Principles and Developing Resources of Yangshuo, by the founding father of our nation, Mr. Sun Yat-sen. It was Mr. Sun’s speech at the Yangshuo County Higher Elementary School on November 29, 1921 on his way of the Northern Expedition. The article pointed out that there are two ways to realize the Three People’s Principles. One is “to popularize education, advocate science, and propagandize the Three People’s Principles, so that everyone knows the country belongs to the people,”  and the other is to develop the economy, “revitalizing industries is an effective way to help people to build wealth. For example, Yangshuo County, it is surrounded by mountains with vast expanses of fertile lands, and those without knowledge of this place consider that it is barren land and difficult to manage. They do not know how the mountains were formed by the accumulated limestone layers, from which lime and cement could be burned. Lime is a type of agricultural fertilizer, as well as an industrial product — cement is a chemical invention that can be used for building roads, river embankments, and high-rise buildings, or making rockeries. Each carrying pole of limestone makes a bucket of cement, which weighs 200 kilograms and is worth six Silver Yuan. People may have thought that the stone mountains of Yangshuo to be waste dumps and infertile, but in my view, this place is covered by gold!” Sun’s strategies enlightened and saved a nation in danger at that time. His first proposal, even today, is inspiring, but the second recognizes “invaluable assets” needed for development. Obviously, the booming tourism industry and the popularity of Ecological Civilization today suggest that the burning of limestone into cement is not the best way of enriching the country and people. In Sun’s time, the waters and mountains of China were regarded as resources to be used. However, now we must break with short-term interests and understand the waters and mountains to be “invaluable assets” to the sustainable development of China, as well as the world.
The idea that “lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets” is a return to human aesthetics and values and a return to human nature. It shares the same internal logic that exists between ecosystem and landscape, ecology and aesthetics, aesthetics and art, art and economy, economy and ecology, and ecosystem services and natural resources, etc.
Based on theories of materialism and evolutionism, human’s aesthetic ability comes from our experience with the earth’s landscape and ecosystem. Jay Appleton’s The Experience of Landscape and Edward O. Wilson’s Biophilia reveal that the aesthetic experience of a landscape and of an individual derives from the human experience, which is closely tied with one’s aesthetics and emotional development.
In the traditional farming era, ecology and economy, ecology and aesthetics, and abundance and aesthetics were unified. Thus, there arose a type of beauty called Peach Blossom Spring, where there were flat and wide lands with well-arranged houses, rich fields, beautiful ponds, mulberries, and bamboos. This was once the standard for economic prosperity, social harmony, and the beautiful scenery of poetry. Here, ecology, abundance, harmony, and beauty were the same. When people created ecological systems, they were designing a healthy ecosystem and beautiful forms. However, with modern economics, the economy is the baseline, the gross domestic product (GDP) is the baseline, and transactions and currencies are the baselines.
When the first can of coke was brought to the Peach Blossom Spring, the unification of ecology, abundance, harmony, and beauty was broken. Human desire for ownership infinitely expands by means of technology and power. Economic pursuits make landscapes and ecosystems exploited resources. Limestone mountains become nothing more than limestone mines. Art created for aesthetics and technology created for economics are divorcing that leads to the hollowness and hypocrisy of the former and the ugliness and pollution of the latter. The separation of ecology and economy, the isolation of ecology and aesthetics, and the distortion between art and economy are the side effects left by Industrial Civilization and capitalist economy. They would be reformed in the era of Ecological Civilization.
If alleviating poverty has been used as a reason to destroy the lucid waters and lush mountains, this is no longer true. Aesthetic defeats are the root of today’s ugliness, pollution, and barren lands. The idea that “lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets” is a call for revolution. We must use the standards of ecosystem services to understand and evaluate landscapes and ecosystems. Ecosystem services link society and nature, cities and villages. It is also a measurement of the ecological economy today that can be used to connect “underdeveloped areas” with rich ecosystem services and “economically abundance areas” that lack in ecological services. The desire for possession is human nature but how possession is celebrated matters cultural concepts that are defined by different societies. There are two methods for making “lucid waters and lush mountains” a reality. First, through universal education every member of society can recognize that human beings only have one earth; having a healthy planetary ecology and enjoying the ecosystem services provided by nature is a supreme wealth. Second, practice and action through ideas of Ecological Civilization and ecological beauty can protect and repair destroyed homelands, reconcile art and technology, and create a healthy ecology and a lush beauty, which is the core task of contemporary Landscape Architecture.
 Huang, Y. (Ed.) (2006). Implementing the Three People's Principles and Developing Resources of Yangshuo. Guangzhou: Guangdong People's Publishing House.
【英文刊名】Landscape Architecture Frontiers • Economics and Landscape Architecture
【作者】盖伦·纽曼（Galen NEWMAN），黎东莹（LI Dongying），朱芮（ZHU Rui）等
Resilience Through Regeration: The Economics of Repurposing Vacant Land With Green Infrastructure
作者：盖伦·纽曼，黎东莹，朱芮，任丁鼎 Galen NEWMAN, LI Dongying, ZHU Rui, REN Dingding
城市再造; 社区韧性; 景观绩效; 绿色基础设施
Many urban areas affected by flood disasters are also becoming increasingly ecologically and socially fragmented due to the accumulation of vacant properties. While redevelopment is often viewed as the primary objective in regenerating vacant properties, they can also potentially provide ecological and hydrological land uses. Rather than chasing development-based incentives for regenerating vacant lots in high flood-risk communities, a balance should be sought between new developmental land uses and green infrastructure to help counteract stormwater runoff and flood effects, or “Resilience through Regeneration.” This paper uses landscape performance measures to evaluate the economic and hydrologic performance of green infrastructure regeneration projects for three marginalized neighborhoods in Houston, Texas, USA. Each project site is characterized by excessive vacant lots and flood issues. Results suggest that, when using green infrastructure to regenerate vacant properties, 1) flood risk continually decreases, 2) upfront economic costs increase in the short term (when compared to conventional development), and 3) the long-term economic return on investment is much higher.
Urban Regeneration; Community Resilience; Landscape Performance; Green Infrastructure
Strategies and Technical Approaches of Rural Traditional Building Renewal in China’s Rural Revitalization Movement
作者：徐小东，沈宇驰 XU Xiaodong, SHEN Yuchi
In the context of China’s current policy-oriented Rural Rejuvenation movement, through case studies, the paper reviews protection and renewal strategies and approaches of traditional rural buildings, ranging from preservation and reshaping of traditional architectural formal elements and group characteristics, contemporary interpretation and application of traditional construction techniques, to introduction of semi-industrialized construction modes and new structural organizing approaches. Based on theoretical and technical studies of sustainability, this paper puts forward a new semi-industrialized intervention mode, called “micro-renewal,” which is more applicable for renewal practices in rural China. Finally, illustrating with an authentic micro-renewal case, the “Embedded House” in Dainan Town in Xinghua, Jiangsu Province, the paper demonstrates that this new semi-industrialized intervention offers a paradigm to strategies, techniques, and alternatives for future architectural renewal and protection in rural China.
Rural Revitalization; Rural Traditional Buildings; Micro-Renewal; Technical Approach; Semi-Industrialized Construction
Exploration on Strengthening City Competitiveness and Improving Urban Governance in the Age of Ecological Civilization
作者：叶裕民 YE Yumin
In this interview, Ye Yumin, the interviewee, first clarifies basic concepts of Economics such as Urban Economics, a city’s economy, and industrial structure upgrading, and points out that, to most Chinese cities, the failure of industrial structure upgrading and new driving force fostering largely is due to their inadequate labor force structure. She argues that today’s primary task of China's urbanization is to ensure people’s overall well-being, encourage their activity and cultivate talents, accumulating human capital to support the continuous upgrading of industrial structure and developing new driving forces. Ye further argues that, in the age of Ecological Civilization, urban planners and designers play an important role in strengthening cities’ competitiveness with inclusive renewal and design concepts, while highlighting that China’s new reform of a Super-Ministry System is in line with contemporary needs to improve the overall competitiveness of the country in the future and to safeguard the public interests. Finally, by recognizing the application scopes of the both top-down Management mode and bottom-up Governance mode, Ye articulates that all problems in China’s PPP cases are caused by the poor credibility of both public and private parties, and a sound credibility system and mechanism is urgently required, which would define duties of both parties.
Economics; City; Urban Planning and Design; Ecological Civilization; Management and Governance; Public-Private Partnership
Landscape Design as an Asset Management
作者：林玮 LIN Wei
Landscape is a product of economic activities and an asset associated with a society’s productivity levels and the relations of production. Despite the range of projects —self-owned, for-sale, or public infrastructure — that designers undertake, life-cycle benefits such as rental returns and public satisfaction should always be considered. By interpreting landscape design as an asset management, this article highlights the third-party role of asset managers who coordinate the benefits of all stakeholders at different stages through negotiation of design options. Designers are also expected to have a product and user thinking, acquire general and interdisciplinary knowledge of certain businesses through role rotations, cross-department meetings, and diverse project teams to improve design proposals, and strengthen mechanisms of pre-occupancy engagement and post-occupancy evaluation.
Asset Management; Landscape Design; Post-Occupancy Evaluation; Holistic Thinking; Economy
Economy, Development, Landscape and Value
作者：乌多·韦拉赫尔 Udo WEILACHER
Landscape has various economic values. However, Udo Weilacher, the interviewee, argues that most drivers of the global economic development do underestimate the wide range of non-economic values of landscape. He points out that public awareness on the values of landscape and environment somehow depends on the societal developing phase of a country, and hopes that developing countries would not go through the same developments that caused irreversible environmental damage, as what most developed countries did. Weilacher further reflects that the benefits of landscape cannot be economically calculated and landscape architects need to discuss environmental values beyond economic calculation. Finally, he argues that in the current college education of Landscape Architecture, economic aspects of landscape have not been emphasized enough, and landscape design has to be enthusiastic to overwhelm and fascinate people in order to persuade them to invest for environmental improvement.
Landscape Architecture; Economy; Value; Development; Education
From Intuition-Driven to Product-Driven Design: Changes in Design Values and Responsibilities
作者：朱胜萱 ZHU Shengxuan
In this interview, combining his career experience as an architect, a landscape architect, and an entrepreneur, Zhu Shengxuan, the interviewee, shares his insights on values and responsibilities of design. He argues that designers should coordinate the interests of all stakeholders and take public benefits into account, and believes that design can be better promoted as a product under a commercial thinking. Through an integration of design, construction, and operation, Zhu creatively introduces a combination of commercial thinking and design values to create a greater social influence. He also encourages addressing China’s rural revitalization with diverse, future-oriented concepts, and points out that the breakthrough of institutions may bring more economic benefits to rural locals.
Landscape Architecture; Cost; Economic Value; Social Responsibility; Product Thinking; Rural Development
Thoughts on Synergetic Development of Watershed Management and Regional Economy
作者：朱庆平 ZHU Qingping
Zhu Qingping, the interviewee, is a prominent expert in China’s watershed management. Starting with the modes of China’s watershed management and the changes of water management philosophy, Zhu emphasizes that watershed management often involves various factors, including public resources, infrastructure construction, ecosystems, historical and cultural traditions, and population, all of which shall be taken into consideration as a whole. The interview then goes to the management of the Yellow River Basin, where Zhu explains the impacts between river flows and urban development, suggests a great opportunity for development the cities in the lower reaches of Yellow River Basin have, and proposes an idea of building a national ecological and cultural belt along the river. He further argues that watershed management requires collaborations across industries, disciplines, and administrative regions and divisions. He also believes that public engagement and maintenance plays an important role in watershed management and an intelligent water / watershed management system needs to be established by networking integrated big-data platforms to facilitate a more intelligent and coordinated water resource management while better ensuring water security at varied scales.
Watershed Management; Regional Economy; Public Resource; Synergetic Development; Yellow River Basin; Intelligent Water / Watershed Management System
DESIGN OF THE FUDAO FOREST WALKWAY IN FUZHOU
作者：新加坡锐科建筑设计咨询有限公司，奥雅纳工程顾问有限公司新加坡分公司 LOOK Architects, Arup Singapore
While rapid spread of urbanization brings dramatical economic growth to major cities worldwide, they are relentlessly eating up green spaces and farmlands essential to the ecosystem and environmental health, risking the common benefits for all lives with inbalanced development and putting a burden on contemporary Landscape Architecture to coordinate ecology and aesthetic with economy. By integrating design aesthetic and engineering efficiency, Fudao, a first-of-its-kind elevated steel walkway system in Fuzhou, China, addresses this challenge successfully by opening up a once desolated mountain area to the public with a minimum environmental disturbance achieved by an innovative design approach, which gains international attention.
Minimum Intervention; Common Benefit; Forest Walkway; Modular System; Lightweight Structure; Ecology Protection
Bight: Coastal Urbanism
作者：苏珊娜·德雷克，拉菲·西格尔 Susannah DRAKE, Rafi SEGAL
在2017年全美区域规划设计竞赛中，由苏珊娜·德雷克和拉菲·西格尔率领的设计团队脱颖而出，被选定为纽约大都会区的其中一个片区制定规划方案。他们提出的“连接海洋的廊道：沿海都市主义”方案建立在一系列系统性的景观和城市设计战略的基础上，以为该区域滨水地区的转型提供指导。两位设计师分别所在的DLANDstudio景观设计事务所和Rafi Segal A+U建筑与都市主义事务所通过与来自麻省理工学院的研究团队展开合作，使他们的设计能够直接并积极地应对气候变化、极端暴雨事件和海平面上升带来的巨大挑战
The project is a result of a national design competition in 2017, through which a team led by Susannah Drake and Rafi Segal was selected to contribute to the 4th Regional Plan for the New York Metropolitan area. Their proposed Bight: Coastal Urbanism project builds upon a systems-based landscape and urban design strategy to guide the transformation of the regional waterfront. Working in collaboration with colleagues in their offices and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), their project directly and proactively responds to the immense challenges of climate change, extreme storm events, and rising sea levels.
Urbanism; Landscape Economic Zone; Sea Level Rise; Coastal Development; Water; Sustainability
Arrival City — Application of the Game Theories in Renewal of Low-Density Urban Villages
作者：赵晨思，刘恺希 ZHAO Chensi, LIU Kaixi
Offering an alternative planning and design strategy of renewals of low-density urban villages, this research estimates potentials of increasing a city’s accommodation capacity of low-skilled labor force through economic approaches like the Game Theories. A design idea of creating an “arrival city” is proposed in the prototypical study on the renewal of the Ganjiazhai Community, a typical urban village in Xi’an City, Shaanxi Province. Developing spatial patterns through a series of evidence-based deductions and estimations, this research forms a node-axis framework of urban planning and design that allows for an adaptive combination of spatial modules and encourages spatial sharing, which might shine a reference for future planning and design of urban villages in Chinese cities.
Low-Density Urban Village Renewal; Low-Skilled Labor Force; Merits of Economies of Scale; Game Theories; Urban Planning
Altitudes: Local Ecologies and Vertical Economies
作者：弗朗西斯科·加罗法洛 Francesco GAROFALO
“Selva Central” is a rural area of Peru defined by high-altitude forest, whose economy is largely dependent on the coffee production. The effects of monoculture are both tangible and intangible, ranging from a weak single-commodity economy to the loss of the multifaceted cultural expertise and traditions of local communities. The area, in fact, produces coffee for global exportation, while is suffering shifting local agricultural patterns due to climate change.
This article argues while unfolding “Altitudes” strategic project, how visualizing climate change, rethinking the supply-chain, and understanding the local landscape as a vertical economy can highlight opportunities of moving beyond the monoculture of coffee, creating the conditions for newly (partially) self-sufficient local communities.
Landscape; Coffee; Monoculture; Climate Change; Strategy
The Civic Forest
作者：乔瓦尼·贝洛蒂，凯利·莉兰妮·梅因，戴安娜·安，亚历山大·威格林·斯皮策 Giovanni BELLOTTI, Kelly Leilani MAIN, Diana ANG, Alexander Wiegering SPITZER
Industrial growth during the twentieth century, fueled by economies of extraction like coal mining, has produced severe environmental degradation and uniquely dispersed metropolitan areas. Silesia, a region of agglomerated mining towns in Southern Poland, is transitioning to a post-extraction economy. Sulfur dioxide emissions and deposits of heavy metals altered the acidity of the land, making farming impossible. Terrain subsidence and slag heaps transformed the topography, forming new valleys and mountains. Over time, surface water bodies appeared, and a new forest grew. The Silesian forests remain a reflection, and also extension, of an extractive and extracted time.
As forests often demarcate the boundaries of growth, embody narratives of preservationism, and retain the trauma of industrial processes, the Civic Forest addresses the forests of Silesia as a new “center,” one that is capable through their scale and complexity to confront the current challenges and ambitions of the post-extraction metropolis.
Forest; Anthropocene; Extraction; Urbanism; Public Space; Landscape