《景观设计学》2019年第4期作 者：布鲁诺•德•缪德尔（Bruno De MEULDER），凯利•香农（Kelly SHANNON），杨正（YANG Zheng）等类 别：景观出 版 社：高等教育出版社有限公司出版时间：2019年8月
Al-Ula Oasis and the Lost Civilization, By Yu Kongjian
The Royal Commission for Al-Ula invited experts and scholars, including myself, to the Al-Hijr Archaeological Site (Madain Saleh) in July 2019. The site, a World Cultural Heritage in Al-Ula, located in the northwest of Arabian Peninsula, was physically and psychologically distant for me — its history, landscape, and culture are beyond my horizon, inviting me to think of the vast universe and a Garden of Eden which I have long fascinated for. To me, the spatial, temporal, and spiritual distance made the city mysteriously charming.
Al-Ula means “valley of villages” in Arabic. The core area of the north-south “valley” between two mountain ranges was an oasis stretching 20 kilometers, along the periphery of which there are many World Heritage Sites. Al-Ula can be roughly seen as a funnel-like watershed of 29,000 square kilometers, and the oasis was at its narrow tail. Thanks to the impermeable rock mass on both sides of the area and concentrated rainfall in winter though the annual precipitation is only 50 millimeters, the steep geology of the area funnels water into the valley and subsequently supports the oasis and towns.
Under the scorching midsummer sun, we wandered through the oasis and surrounding heritage sites. The local guide said that human activity here can trace back over 200,000 years, beginning with the Old Stone Age. Over centuries, this area has been ruled by different civilizations, including the Dedān and the Liḥyān kingdoms rising in the 7th and 5th century B.C. respectively. These once-mighty powers controlled the territory politically and economically, but they left only some remnant town fabrics in the desert with stone inscriptions and palisades carvings. Later, Nabataeans emerging in the 1st century B.C. dominated the oasis. Their ruins lie on the northern highlands of the oasis, shining among the adjacent heritage sites. The Nabataeans mysteriously vanished after a prosperity through the Arabian Peninsula, leaving no traces but huge coffin chambers and a meeting hall chiseled in the cliffs.
Most recently, the ancient town that emerged at the dawn of the Islamic period occupied the Al-Ula oasis. As a key hub in the ancient incense trade and pilgrimages routes, it is said that Mohammed, the founder of Islam, visited the town. The ancient town was mostly occupied in winter as the Arabians moved to the lower oasis during summer, where the date palms (Phoenix dactylifera) were grown in sunken courtyards made of rammed earth. The last family had left in 1983, leaving this once verdant village only dilapidated walls and trunks of dead date palms. Immersed in the mazy streets in this ancient town, I felt lost as if they were the remote and desolate scenes of The Thousand and One Nights.
During my time in Al-Ula, my mind was occupied by several questions: How did those ancient civilizations disappear? Where did the residents go? Why did they leave? I explored the site with these questions. Winter floods may occur occasionally in the oasis. However, the overflow from the river can hardly be infiltrated into the downstream desert as the broad sand beach has been channelized with high and long cement floodwalls. Worse, in addition to the construction of airports and new towns that have encroached on the desert, more engineering projects are undergoing, including constructing a channel to discharge flood water directly to the Red Sea. The historic earthworks of farms form a complicated array of property lines that continue to define the landscapes, but most of them are facing a shrinking population. Those remaining populated farms are primarily run as weekend entertainment places for urban residents, while most of the date palm plantations are run for commercial uses.
Entering one farm managed by the local, I was immediately attracted by a cool breeze and luxurious green vegetation. It was a welcome reprise from the dry and hot conditions outside. The farm maintains a traditional three-layered planting pattern, with date palms as the canopy, under which are various fruit trees, and vegetables and grasses grown on the ground. The steep rocks that line the oasis are reflected in the shallow puddles formed by the flood irrigation for date palms. The birds are singing all around while goats are grazing along the vegetation, and rammed earth houses are scattered among the date palms. Is not this what the Garden of Eden is like! When asked about the water source, the farmer showed me a 75-meter-deep well where the groundwater is pumped up into channels for farming uses. The local guide told me that there were springs in early years; two decades ago the groundwater level was as high as 10 meter deep; but in recent years it is decreasing by 3 meters annually. Later that day, when I visited a monoculture date palm plantation, I saw no fruit trees or ground cover, but date palms are planted in an extremely high density and irrigated immoderately with groundwater.
I was shocked by the scenes and started to concern that there would probably not be any water left to support this oasis and the cities in two decades. It occurred to me why so many civilizations had disappeared over the past 200,000 years: the misuse of limited water resource degraded the environmental capacity of the oasis, breaking the balance between humans and the land. People would have to move, or conflict for the scarce oases and water resource. This offers a perspective to understand the history of the Middle East and even the world, which has been soon proofed by my further conversations with archaeologists and historical studies.
Then I have come to the solution to protecting and developing Al-Ula, and addressing its challenges: the oasis and the watershed it depends on should be regarded as an integral system; a balanced water cycle must be maintained, otherwise the system will deteriorate, irreversibly disrupting the human-land relationship. This means that water cycle restoration must be the top priority. It happens that one of the key tasks of Landscape Architecture is to explore ecological restoration and sustainable management of watershed in the sense of hydrology.
 Climate Al-Ula. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://en.climate-data.org/asia/saudi-arabia/al-madinah-region/al-ula-549869/
 Ancient Cultures. (n.d.). Dedan-Kkuraibah, Early Ancient Kingdom & Trading Oasis on Incense Route. Retrieved from http://ancient-cultures.info/data/documents/NEW-Dedan.pdf
 Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. (n.d.). Nabataean Kingdom and Petra. Retrieved from https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/naba/hd_naba.htm
【英文刊名】Landscape Architecture Frontiers • Watershed Management and Ecological Restoration
【作者】布鲁诺•德•缪德尔（Bruno De MEULDER），凯利•香农（Kelly SHANNON），杨正（YANG Zheng）等
Settling Along, With, And On Water in Thua Thien Hue, Vietnam: Past, Present, and Future
作者：布鲁诺•德•缪德尔，凯利•香农 Bruno De MEUDLER, Kelly SHANNON
This paper develops a water-based spatial biography of the Thua Thien Hue Province in Vietnam’s Central Highlands and critically interprets the territory’s intertwined contemporary challenges — a growing population, greater demands on agriculture, fisheries, and aquaculture, tourism and changes in annual rainwater, and sea level regimes. It is structured by four sections (typical geography and exceptional ecology, diverse settlement typologies, curse and perils of water, contemporary challenges) which interpretatively read the context. Historical analysis and mapping of present-day projects in the pipeline are complemented by extensive fieldwork in an attempt to reveal (and later build upon) the logics of the territory. It concludes with a series of projective design strategies developed by Research Urbanism and Architecture for the Thua Thien Hue Province Peoples’ Committee and the Hanoi-based investor Van Phu, which attempt to balance ecology with economy with a focus on lagoon restoration and new city and settlement types (for the living and the dead) which respond to the predicted consequences of climate change (particularly severe flooding). The project is premised on policy shifts from hard-engineering to approaches that work as much as possible with natural means to simultaneously restore ecologies and generates opportunities to embed new sustainable economies. Not surprisingly, water urbanism strategies are key to this envisioned future development of the province.
Tam Giang-Cau Hai Lagoon; Flooding; Watershed; Sea Level Rise; Design Research
The Integrated Catchment Management Plan in New Zealand and the Enlightenment to China’s Practice
作者：杨正，赵杨，车伍，陈伟，李贞子，俱晨涛 YANG Zheng, ZHAO Yang, CHE Wu, CHEN Wei, LI Zhenzi, JU Chentao
China’s current catchment planning often focuses on formulating overall strategies for flood control and water resource distribution from a perspective of water conservancy. Usually, such plans are developed at large scales, covering a huge territory. However, city-scaled analyses, technical strategies, or roadmaps responding to issues of urban flooding, water pollution, etc. are less integrated into the current catchment planning; there is also an absence of comprehensive management methods for medium- or small-scaled urban water bodies. Combing with a case study on integrated catchment management plans (ICMP) for the Hamilton City, New Zealand, this paper reviews and summarizes the idea, role, objectives, key sections, and implementation of ICMPs in New Zealand, including a series of core tasks ranging from the trans-administrative catchment management mechanism, comprehensive and operational objectives and the technical system to the integration with long-term urban planning and Resource Consent requirements. In view of the status quo and major problems in China's comprehensive management of urban water systems, as well as the gaps in the existing formulation and implementation of catchment planning, especially the absence of integrated planning methods for medium- or small-scaled catchments that have a more direct and stronger relation with urban development, New Zealand’s experience in ICMP preparation and implementation reflects a paradigm significance.
New Zealand; Catchment; Integrated Catchment Management Plan; Issues of Urban Water System
Control-Unit-Based Analysis of the Ecological Restoration Measure System and Arrangement of the Xiaonanhai Lake Watershed in Hubei Province, China
作者：丁洋，赵进勇，彭文启，闫军波，冯健 DING Yang, ZHAO Jinyong, PENG Wenqi, YAN Junbo, FENG Jian
To deal with the water environmental degradation and ecological damage of the Xiaonanhai Lake watershed in Songzi City of Hubei Province, China, this study first divided the watershed into 32 control units according to the administrative division and catchment zones, then analyzed the pollution source and load and calculated the water environmental capacity of the watershed with the water environment system model coupled by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model and the MIKE 21 model. To better deal with different pollutants and divide the responsibility more efficiently, the study proposed a control-unit-based system of five ecological restoration measures including the three-stage constructed wetland, the natural wetland, the clean water corridor, the lakeshore buffer zone, and the emerged and floating plant belt. Finally, the performance evaluation of these measures was conducted under the “Dual Control” system of concentration control and total load control of pollutants. The result proved that the five measures could effectively reduce the total amount of COD, TN, TP, and NH3-N to improve the water quality, meeting the Surface Water Class Ⅲ Standard.
Watershed Management; Control Unit; Ecological Restoration Measures; Water Environment System Model; Xiaonanhai Lake Watershed; Concentration Control and Total Load Control of Pollutants
Application of Research on Ecosystem Services in Landscape Planning
作者：李方正，彭丹麓，王博娅 LI Fangzheng, PENG Danlu, WANG Boya
Landscape planning adjusts spatial structures and functions by altering the types of land use / land cover and the patterns of landscapes, and thus further impacts ecosystem services. This paper examines the impacts of landscape planning on ecosystem services and draws the conclusion that the control over the types of land use / land cover, the altering of landscape patterns, and the adjustment of landscape functional characteristics could change the type, quality, and performance of ecosystem services, respectively. Through an overall review on the application of ecosystem service evaluation, spatial mapping, and scenario simulation, this paper further concludes their roles in landscape planning: ecosystem service evaluation provides means to ensure scientific landscape planning; spatial mapping serves as a basis to the decision making; and scenario simulation visualizes all kinds of possibilities for an optimal choice. At the same time, such applications in landscape planning practices, ranging from green space planning, ecological conservation redline planning, land use planning to biodiversity protection planning, are exemplified. Finally, this paper summarizes existing research findings and limitations and proposes that future research is expected to study the relationship between landscape planning and ecosystem services, to build a dynamic composite planning framework that can improve ecosystem services, and to propel the research on the tradeoff-and-synergy among ecosystem services in landscape planning.
Ecosystem Services; Landscape Planning; Land Use; Landscape Pattern; Scenario Simulation
Comprehensive Conservation of the Yangtze River with Innovative Systems and Mechanisms
作者：赵峰 ZHAO Feng
With huge economic and cultural significance, the Yangtze River Basin in China has long suffered from severe water pollution and ecological damage problems. On December 13, 2018, the Yangtze Ecology and Environment Co., Ltd. was established in Wuhan City, Hubei Province as the key implementer under the China Three Gorges Corporation to promote the Comprehensive Conservation of the Yangtze River in a market-oriented way. In the exploration of environmental protection path, “from pilot programs to experience summary, refinement, and promotion” method is adopted. Besides, two strategies are proposed: to integrate the sewage plants and the pipeline network to ensure the operation of the sewerage system safe and efficient; to integrate sewage plants, pipeline networks, river (or lake), and banks to reduce water pollution and restore the water ecosystem systematically. Furthermore, targeted strategies are put forward in different cities. After the environment is recovered and residents’ living quality is improved, the city can attract more investments and industries and a sustainable value chain of enterprises would be formed. Finally, all administrative bodies should serve the roles of resource suppliers and coordinators, acquiring expertise knowledge, learning the requirements of the service objects, and facilitating coordination and communication positively.
Comprehensive Conservation of the Yangtze River; China Three Gorges Corporation; Yangtze River Basin; Water Environment Comprehensive Treatment Planning; Ecological Restoration; Systems and Mechanisms
THOUGHTS ON ECOLOGICAL WATERSHED PLANNING UNDER THE TERRITORIAL SPATIAL PLANNING
作者：张莉 ZHANG li
The author firstly points out several problems that commonly exist in China’s watersheds and the urgent need for multidisciplinary collaboration in ecological planning. The theories and practices on watershed ecological planning are reviewed respectively from the aspects of waterway planning, natural river and wetland protection, ecological baseflow recovery, nonpoint source pollution reduction, and biodiversity protection. The author suggests that if we could reserve multi-functional ecological zone in the new territorial spatial planning by multidisciplinary collaboration, ecological goals including flood control, water quality improvement, ecological base flow provision, and biodiversity protection could be achieved. In this comprehensive solution, only when water bodies and associated habitats such as the ground and underground, upstream and downstream, and rivers and banks are coordinated as a whole, it will generate multiple ecological benefits. Finally, the author believes that planners and designers have the ability to solve ecological problems. To fulfill this vision, we must call for collaboration between land planning and ecological watershed planning in the process of territorial spatial planning.
Ecological Watershed Planning; Collaborative Planning; Cross-Disciplinary Collaboration; Territorial Spatial Planning; Ecological Corridor
Ecological Planning Practices of the Yellow River National Wetland Park in Jinan Section
作者：菲利普•安奎斯特，周茵樱，德鲁•温斯利，艾伦•路易斯 Philip ENQUIST, ZHOU Yinying, Drew WENSLEY, Alan LEWIS
Jinan in Shandong Province, China is a city with favorable location — the Yellow River runs through this region from southwest to northeast while the notable world heritage Mount Tai is its south background. The low reach of the Yellow River where Jinan is located is a “suspended river,” which is caused by a large amount of sediments from the upper and middle reaches. Over the past decades, the levee has ensured the city and villages free from floods. However, it blocks the connection between the north bank area of the Yellow River and the urban town. The problems of ecological imbalance, deterioration of aquatic environment, and fragmented habitats have become more acute. Since 2017, the City Design Practice team of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP (SOM) has collaborated with the Jinan Municipal Government to envision a transformation of the riverfront from ecological, cultural, transportation, and economic aspects and further proposed the idea of building a continuous Yellow River National Wetland Park along the entire Yellow River. The design proposals address the national, watershed, regional, and city scales. From the concept proposed in the plan of the 183 km reach, to the planning strategies of the 30 km core demonstration area, and further to the specific design of the Autumn Colors on the Que and Huabuzhu Mountains Park, SOM has developed step by step from macro-planning to micro-design, to ensure the uniformity and consistency of the entire design at all scales. SOM looks forwards to presenting the Yellow River in Jinan as a proven model for other river cities to follow the construction of the Yellow River National Wetland Park, and providing a practical reference for the planning and design of the Yangtze River Basin and similar watersheds in other countries.
Yellow River; Suspended River; Watershed; Levee Renovation; Ecological Conservation; National Park
Study on Water-City Pattern Strategies of Shenshan Special Cooperation Zone, China with Sponge City Construction at the Watershed Scale
作者：李毅，薛菲，景瑞瑛，王燕，王健 LI Yi, XUE Fei, JING Ruiying, WANG Yan, WANG Jian
This article focuses on the water-city pattern development in the ShenShan Special Cooperation Zone in China and discusses the watershed-based sponge city construction strategy. Specific to the challenges of the zone, this study attempts to establish the correspondence between watershed spatial construction and the control indicators of sponge city, providing rigid norms for future urban development to ensure the safety and health of the whole watershed. At a practical level, three strategies of water-city pattern construction are proposed in aspects of 1) sponge system layout, to increase the proportion of the ecological resources across the watershed by a high-level ecosystem conservation; 2) urban waterway planning, to protect the zone from floods by increasing the water network density as well as introducing infrastructures for flood storage and discharge; and 3) land development mode, to regulate resources to achieve balanced land development by dividing the zone into many “islands,” taking full advantage of flood plains, reserving the lakes and reservoirs, and introduce more ponds. As the zone is going to start high-speed development, this article studies strategies of the water-city pattern construction and discusses the innovation methods of promoting sustainable development with sponge city construction at the watershed scale.
Watershed; Sponge City Construction; ShenShan Special Cooperation Zone; Water-City Pattern; Flood Control
A Social-Economic-Natural Compound Ecosystem Constructed for Urban Rivers — Planning and Design for the Remediation and Ecological Restoration of the Guitang River Watershed in Changsha City, China
作者：刘苑，王润，陆文钦，彭赤焰 LIU Yuan, WANG Run, LU Wenqin, PENG Chiyan
Guitang River, a once natural river breeding a harmonious human-water relationship, is now the longest inland river of Changsha City, Hunan Province, China, suffering from severer water problems such as water shortage, environmental polloution, and ecological degradation, which heavily impede the urban development. Commissioned by Changsha Guitang River Catchment Development and Construction Co., Ltd., the project team employed 4 mathematic models including a hydrodynamic model of water systems, a water quality model, a hydrodynamic model of drainage networks, and a hydrological model of watersheds to generate an optimal planning scheme for restoring the natural water circulation with the most appropriate planning scheme. Strategies were proposed including the blue and green ecological network combined with urban functional zoning, natural river restoration, riparian space improvement, watershed-scale ecological corridor construction, and neighborhood-scale sponge city construction. The whole planning and design, from a coordinated planning at the watershed scale to the river scale, and to specific neighborhood projects, is to establish a social-economic-natural compound ecosystem to balance urban development with ecosystem improvement, while promoting the sustainability of the river.
Social-Economic-Natural Compound Ecosystem; Watershed Remediation; Mathematic Models; Urban Development; Multi-Disciplinary Collaboration
Seeing From Above: Observation of Contemporary Dike-Pond Landscape
作者：田梦晓 TIAN Mengxiao
A dike-pond landscape is characterized by a symbiotic and interacted relationship between water and land and considered an integration of human settlements with an aquaculture-agriculture system. The Pearl River Delta has historically enjoyed a rich river network and been shaped by the mosaic-like constructed ponds with the meandering natural river systems, where the boundary of the constructed and the natural blurred and a resilient dike-pond landscape prevailed. However, the increasing demand for land resource during urbanization and industrial development has made such a landscape shrunk and surrounded by urban sprawl. The expansion of human settlements has not only changed the water-land symbiosis but also reshaped the pattern of the dike-pond landscape. This article, as an ongoing work, intends to observe and document the changes of such water-related landscapes from a different perspective, “seeing from above,” with historical satellite photos, Google Map images, and contemporary aerial drone photography. It discovered three important transformations: the settlement sprawl and transformation, the shrinking dike surfaces and imbalanced ratio of dike to pond, and the disappearance of the organic pond pattern. These findings can evoke critical studies on the dialectical relation between urbanization and ecology, and offer possibilities of re-creating a sustainable landscape in the Pearl River Delta.
Dike-Pond Landscape; Pearl River Delta; Water-Land Relationship; Agriculture-Aquaculture Ecosystem; Satellite Image; Drone Photo
In-Between Waters / Intercepting Wetness: Inventing Rain in the Mining Landscape of Shanxi Province, China
作者：何洁茹 HE Jieru (Hedy)
Under the background of imposing engineered structures, including reservoirs and inter-basin water transfer infrastructures, being applied to solve drought caused by coal mining in Shanxi Province of China and floods caused by mineral mining in Western Ghats of India, the author reviews the intrinsic reason of water problems and recommends a water management solution that is design on “rain before floods” and “fields of wetness before flows of water.” Most magnificent engineered infrastructures are designed upon an idea of separating water from its milieu, thus becoming contained flows in pipes, channels, and reservoirs to solve water problems. To compensate for the shortage of existing water infrastructures, the author suggests gathering a regional-level landscape capacity for building “wetness” of resilience when facing problems of “water” in extremities. This is a radical shift compared with a problem-solving approach, as engineering does, to one that is grounded in landscape and uncovers opportunities.
The landscape research and design project introduced in this article aims to provide an alternative future for Shanxi Province, China, which seems arid and is challenged by mono-development mode. The research and design within the project are across four nested scales. A landscape infrastructure of intercepting wetness is taken as an underlying thread which initiates intertwined ecological, programmatic, temporal and material trajectories. On the other hand, the project demonstrates research, representation, design, and planning can actually inform one another, and the design remains open and adaptive to its changing environments.
Mining Landscape; Drought; Watershed Management; Landscape Infrastructure; Wetness; Sectional Representation