《景观设计学》2019年第5期作 者：曾颖（ZENG Ying），麦咏诗（Vincci MAK），瓦莱里奥•莫拉比托（Valerio MORABITO）等类 别：景观出 版 社：高等教育出版社有限公司出版时间：2019年10月
The Wonderland at the Foot of Mount Qishan, By Yu Kongjian
For nearly 30 years, I yearned to see and experience the land at the foot of Mount Qishan as though I were the Zhou and Qin people who developed and prospered because of their relationship with the mount. In August 2019, I was finally able to spend time immersed in this glamorous cultural landscape, trying to get connected with the ancient years. This land, the core territory for the Zhou, Qin, and Han dynasties, has significantly made the society and culture of China thrive and grow: the knowledge of the sun, of the moon, of the earth, and of all the beings of this place has been integrated into the culture of Chinese-speaking people, developing into their societal and aesthetic values, as well as the geomancy of a geographic space, which profoundly shaped the way how people cognize, adapt to, and transform the world they live in.
My trip followed four routes. The first was the migration path of the Zhou people (the ancient farming tribes), from the ancient Xunyi City in the north to the ancient Binzhou City in the south, and to the ancient Zhouyuan City at the south foot of Mount Qishan, to seek shelter from the nomadic tribes. On this route, I imagined myself following Duke Liu and Duke Dan (leaders and ancestors of the Zhou people), looking up the sky and down at the ground, selecting sites for farming, homes, and the capital. As described in The Book of Poetry, Duke Liu and Duke Dan moved along the Weihe Valley corridor, crossing basins and ranges in mountains. After finding a safe place for potential settlements, they may have climbed the surrounding highlands to overlook oases and valleys, delighting in the rich soil; they may have traveled down to the plains and to trace mountain streams to find water resource; they may have also measured the land for farms and homes. Spread through ancient works such as The Book of Poetry and The Book of Changes, such landscape observation for farming and living and the preference for the basin-shaped territory contributed to forming an ideal Chinese geomancy (Feng Shui) that informs site and position selection and spatial pattern.
The second route I took was the path which the Zhou people took before making the ancient Luoyi City their capital. At that time, the increasingly powerful Zhou people moved along the Weihe River to the east, from the Guanzhong Basin towards the Central Plains to conquer the Shang people and establish a new dynasty, early in which period the term of “kingdom in the center” (the literal meaning of “China” in Chinese) first appeared as recorded by the inscription on He Zun, a ritual bronze vessel. King Wen, the founder of the Zhou Dynasty, complied The Book of Changes when being imprisoned by the Shang people, which became a written record of Zhou people’s observation and experience of farming and living in the Guanzhong Basin. For this record, we could infer that the image of a “kingdom in the center” — a capital sitting in a basin with a clear border — was invented by Zhou leaders before inscribed on He Zun.
The third route traveled upstream along the ancient Qianhe River to feel after the prosperous history of the Qin Dynasty. The route passed through the intersection of the Qianhe River and Weihe River, through the cragged gorge of Guanshan Mountain, whose topography transitions from 900 meters to 2,200 meters over only 30 kilometers. The pastures between the Qianhe and the Weihe rivers was where Qin Feizi, the founding king of Qin State, raised horses for King Xiao of Zhou. For his proficiency in horse breeding, Qin Feizi was well-rewarded with a small piece of land to the west of Mount Qishan. After hundreds of years of hard work, the Qin State ended the ruling of Zhou and conquered the other six states throughout the country. Expanding the territorial cognition of the “kingdom in the center” from the Zhou Dynasty, the Qin Emperor unified the nation in currency, metrology, written language, and vehicle size. The unexcelled prosperity of the Qin Dynasty blended a tough and courageous culture into the China’s docile and modest identity as an agricultural nation. Later, the Han Dynasty carried forward Qin’s domineering vigor — It is said that the number of army horses in the Guanshan area reached more than 300,000 during that period. A robust cavalry then formed that made the Han army capable of completing long-distance strikes, rapid assaults, and outflanking. At that time, great military generals such as Wei Qing and Huo Qubing expanded the national territory and kept the Hsiung-nu tribes thousands of miles away.
The landscape along this route that connects the Central Plain Area with the western regions is a unique charm in Chinese art and culture. Guanshan Mountain, which roughly divides China into two parts in geography, as well as in culture (farming and nomadic), has been portrayed by countless poets as a symbol for far and sublime that represents warfare. The sense of sublime has also been reflected in the landscape paintings of Guan Tong, a painter of the Later Liang Dynasty in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. As a student of Jing Hao who was the leading pioneer of the northern landscape painting school, Guan Tong surpassed his teacher in style and legacy. His masterpiece, the Travelling in Mountains, has long been intimidated and profoundly affected China’s landscape aesthetic of towering peaks, steep valleys, dangerous paths, and desolate landscapes. The sublime expressed in Guan Tong’s paintings contrasts the beauty depicted in Tao Yuanming’s Peach Blossom Spring characterized for peace and tranquility, yet the both two coexist and influence the Chinese culture.
Finally, my fourth route climbs from the Weihe Valley to Mount Taibai, the main peak of the Qinling Mountains, which ranges in elevation from 500 meters to 3,750 meters. The mystery and richness of the landscape is evident walking along the Tangyu Valley, a major valley of Mount Taibai. It is said that the spring water here can heal people and all the found plants are therapeutic. The top of the mountain was covered with large areas of snowy glaciers and ice, forming a completely different landscape from the basins and plains. Cities nestled in the Central Plain Basin can be panoramically viewed from this vantage point — Mount Taibai is worthy of its name of the “Mountain of Dunwu” (mountain of richness) by The Book of Documents or the “Mountain of Taiyi” (mountain of mystery) by The Book of Han. It is said that famous Chinese physicians Qibo and Sun Simiao lived here for years to study the properties of herbs. In my personally opinion, Mount Taibai is the archetype of Mount Kunlun, the legendary Taoist site: it rises so high that can only be accessible by gods, and it offers the medicine of immortality. The Zhou, the Qin, and their descendants understand that the snow-covered Mount Taibai was a fairyland that contains all the desires of human world. Thus, Mount Taibai, or the Kunlun Wonderland, perfectly represents both the religious ideals and worldly desires.
It is precisely because of how the Zhou and Qin people explored and envisioned this landscape at the foot of Mount Qishan, both physically as settlements and spiritually as a wonderland, their expression of the ideal landscape model emerged and developed into an ideal territorial image of “kingdom in the center,” as well as the poetic representation of the sublime landscape and the Kunlun Wonderland. Their observation and experience of this landscape in this significant period has greatly fostered and shaped China’s social and cultural identity and made it thriving.
 Wang, X. (Ed.). (2015). Duke Liu in Greater Odes of the Kingdom. The Book of Poetry. Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company.
 Wang, X. (Ed.). (2015). Continuity in Greater Odes of the Kingdom. The Book of Poetry. Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company.
He, Z. (2011). The Idea of “Central Country” Recorded in the Inscriptions of He Zun. Wenbo, (6), 32-34.
 Guo, F., Zhang, K., & Lv, J. (2000). The Dictionary of Gansu. Lanzhou: Gansu Culture Publishing House.
 An, Z. (2006). Horse Breeding and the Breed Improvement in Han Dynasty. Agricultural Archaeology, (4), 273-280, 296.
 Wang, S., & Wang, C. (2012). The Tribute of Yu. The Book of Documents. Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company.
 Ban, G. (n. d.). Geography (Vol. 28). The Book of Han. Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company.
【英文刊名】Landscape Architecture Frontiers • Observation and Representation
【作者】曾颖（ZENG Ying），麦咏诗（Vincci MAK），瓦莱里奥•莫拉比托（Valerio MORABITO）等
Observation and Representation: On Recognition and Expression of Natural Sites in Landscape Architecture
作者：曾颖 ZENG Ying
In the education of Landscape Architecture, the way we view and depict a natural site is defined by the way we observe and express it. This paper starts with a comparison between the perspective and approach of traditional painting types (the realistic sketch, design sketch, and landscape painting) and those in Landscape Architecture. All of them involve observation (viewing) and expression (drawing) of natural beings and phenomena, where traditional paintings are in the pursuit of honest depiction of the forms or shapes. While in Landscape Architecture it emphasizes understanding and representing the evolutions and the complicated intrinsic relations of the authentic sites — in other words, to represent the nature of reality.
To be on-site, the use of body movement, and the evolutions and correlations of natural beings are the three most important principles to the observation and representation in Landscape Architecture. Combining with two cases in teaching and practice, this paper elaborates how to develop abstract forms and design concepts from the observation of authentic sites and how the trans-scaled reflection on the correlations about the sites can inspire a site-scaled design, providing references for the education and practice of Landscape Architecture in China.
Landscape Architecture; Site; Observation; Perception; Movement; Expression; Representation
The Spark of Contemporary Landscape Creativity — The Foundation Landscape Design Studio in The University of Hong Kong
作者：麦咏诗 Vincci MAK
Traditional landscape design studio training starts with the learning of a classic or prominent landscape project, may it be through site observation or a trace-over / imitation exercise. Foundation year students in a landscape program typically take the landscape precedent project as a study ground, to learn about the landscape master’s design through the mimicking process in the trace-over exercise, or to learn about the articulation of spatial design through site observation.
Landscape Architecture, afterall, is a creative endeavor. Thus, an alternative approach is to start the fundamental training with the study of artistic processes, to foster appreciation in art and design, innovative concept development, and articulation in craftsmanship. Also, the contemporary discourse of Landscape Architecture is no longer simply about spatial design, but has transformed to require understanding of process, operation, step-by-step mechanism, movement, and how a system works. The performative and dynamic aspects of landscape are being valued nowadays.
Such ways of seeing landscapes require a different set of observation and representation methods and skills. In this article, the author shares how the pedagogical content and developments of the foundation year landscape design studio in the HKU Bachelor of Arts in Landscape Studies BA(LS) Program help train students with such new interpretations to contemporary Landscape Architecture.
Foundation Landscape Design Studio; Dynamic; Process; Creativity; Art; Concept; Observation and Representation
Verbal Drawings: Mapping Landscape Ideas
作者：瓦莱里奥•莫拉比托 Valerio MORABITO
Verbal drawings, as a particular drawing category of drawings, are discussed in this paper about its history, qualities, and what kind of role they could play in the design communication of contemporary landscape architecture. The definition of verbal drawings arises from the observation and reading of Rupestrian art and its process in making drawings and paintings. Rupestrian art was the first human written communication prior to the emergence of words and spoken communication. For this reason, Rupestrian art drawings and paintings are not just images to be seen; above all, they are texts to be read. They are written drawings using pictograms, ideograms, and psycho-ideograms to compose images with a specific grammar and syntax. These written images have three qualities: a sense of immediacy, a sense of beauty, and a sense of lightness.
Representing human activities in particular environments, Rupestrian art drawings are not only the first landscape representations but also the early representations of the act of mapping, opening a connection between the art of cartography and the art of verbal drawings. Using examples, this paper explains the importance of ancient and modern mapping arts in connection with the discourse of contemporary landscape architecture by demonstrating how the senses of immediacy, beauty, and lightness help contemporary verbal drawings compete with the neutral, beautiful, quickly produced and consumed digital representations nowadays. In the end, the text proposes a confrontation between Umberto Eco’s concept of “open work” and verbal drawings — Verbal drawings might be intended more like “open frameworks” than “open works.” It is a concept that considers verbal drawings able to accept new ideas for extending their meanings and significance throughout the design process.
Verbal Drawings; Art of Mapping; Reading; Representation
Draw-ing Drawing — Revisiting the Drawings by Laurie Olin
作者：陈峥能，蔡哲铭 Albert Zhengneng CHEN， Taro Zheming CAI
The idea of landscape is, to some extent, a cumulative interpretation of the way we see the world, reflecting our relationship with nature and culture. Landscape is thereby impossible to be assumed a priori but only to be understood through observation and representation. Between a broad spectrum of media, hand drawing presents presumably an oldest and simplest means for landscape representation, whether it is existing or imaginary. However, the creative yet oftentimes invisible process of draw-ing receives less attention from the spectators than its result. The paper takes an inquiry into this seemingly complicated process of looking and thinking based on the coordination of the draughtsman’s critical eye and skilful hand. First, the paper gives a careful reading upon some selected drawings from a recent exhibition of the renowned American landscape architect Laurie Olin, with three particular focuses — the reduction in representation, the composition of the observed landscape (perspectival composition and figurative composition), and the conjecturable intention behind drawing skills. Second, the paper attempts to unveil the evolution of Olin’s decades of training and practising of drawing and observation, and further argues the significance in the training of hand and the cultivation of the critical eye in Landscape Architecture pedagogy.
Drawing; Observation; Representation; Laurie Olin
Plural Practices: Ideas for Drawing Responsibly
作者：吉尔•戴斯米妮 Jill DESIMINI
The article discusses the topics of cartography and landscape architecture, with a few ideas about technique, scale, observation, translation, and imagination. The charge is to look closely, think critically, and develop sensibly a drawing toolkit that allows for an expansion of possible readings and spatial outcomes. It asks designers to question the information before them, and to respond with precision and range. The challenges are increasingly complex, and thus, media and methods must be plural and robust. The replies herein build on the Cartographic Grounds project, an exhibit and book that again reimagines the projective potential of cartographic practices that afford greater proximity to the manifestation and manipulation of the ground itself, and promotes the intersection between the disciplines of Landscape Architecture and Cartography towards a grounded practice of representing and imagining multiple terrains for design. The introduction of the observation and representation training in Harvard Graduate School of Design further suggests that observation is fundamental, and for design, representation must extend beyond documenting and understanding the world that exists, towards imagining a more equitable and adaptive future.
Landscape Architecture; Cartography; Representation; Visualization; Plurality
Participation, Interpretation, and Representation of Landscape Design
作者：张东 ZHANG Dong
At the beginning of this interview, Zhang Dong, partner of Z+T Studio, believes that landscapes of each nation should be closely rooted in its own culture and designing landscapes which praise China’s cultural identity should be a part of Chinese designers’ values and beliefs. Beside of integrating with strategies of sustainability and resilience, landscape design should also combine with environmental education. Zhang summarizes a landscape design process into “two objective aspects and one subjective aspect,” and points out that a designer’s professional knowledge, social values, and aesthetic preferences together influence his / her acquisition of information from sites and the design what and how he / she will make. While recognizing the importance of ecology and public participation to landscape design, he stresses that design essentially is to solve problems in a creative way and landscape designers should not neglect the fundamentality of spatial creation and aesthetics to the profession and the discipline. Finally, he explains the Whole-Process Participation design mode adopted by Z+T Studio, and how it helps improve designers’ capacity in observation and representation.
Landscape Design; Observation; Representation; Cultural Landscapes; Aesthetics; Whole-Process Participation Design Mode
Global Perspectives on Landscape and Territory
作者：哈尼兹•詹德 Hannes ZANDER
From the South: Global Perspectives on Landscape and Territory is the first book publication by the ILC (International Landscape Collaborative). The book promotes a landscape approach that aims to understand today’s environmental challenges and socio-political transformations through the medium of landscape and to discuss sites of different scales in connection to their territorial context. While the world is increasingly being urbanized and its natural characteristics are being transformed by human societies, the individual site or person is connected to regional and even planetary systems and interrelationships. It is therefore important to create a sensitivity and understanding for such multi-dimensional dependencies. In this interdisciplinary and multi-scalar discourse, the landscape serves as a common ground to productively address contemporary issues of natural and built environments as a collective effort. The ILC as an independent think-tank wants to provide a platform and facilitate a dialogue among scholars and practitioners from different geographies and disciplines, including landscape planning, management, and design. The ILC’s approach to landscape and territory, the group’s mission in the context of the Anthropocene, as well as the content of the book publication is discussed in this article.
Landscape Approach; Anthropocene; Territorial Planning; Critical Mapping; Interdisciplinary Collaboration; Global South
Observations Beyond the Site: Unfolding of Landscape Process in the Design of Duke Garden in Kunshan
作者：时惠来，林中杰，陈嘉诚 SHI Huilai, LIN Zhongjie, CHEN Jiacheng
Observation is the beginning of reading site and inspiring design. When the site lacks obvious features, designers not only need to observe in detail but also step out of the site’s physical boundaries and expand the scope of observation. This process involves reflection on the intrinsic factors of the site, seeking landscape reference in the broader context according to the subject’s core connotations, through which design concepts can emerge from the simulation, selection, and expression of scenarios. The new Duke Garden, located in the city of Kunshan in Jiangsu Province, is situated in a typical Chinese suburban area, which bears little distinction in geographical features. The ordinary site condition forced designers to search for deeper characteristics of the place through alternative methods which allow designers to examine the site from three perspectives: 1) through the study and comparison of precedents which share a spiritual lineage; 2) through the physiographical investigation on regional ecosystem to which the site belongs; and 3) through a revisit of the preceding phases of the project and a probe into the temporal connection between adjacent sites. Observations from these three perspectives have enabled the design of Duke Garden to explore contemporary spiritual connotations of the landscape typology of “garden” and intepret it through this project.
Duke Garden; Garden Spirit; Off-Site; Physiographical; Time-Lapse; Scenario; Observation and Representation
Jinhua Memorial Park in Suining
作者：吴兆杰 WU Zhaojie
Observation and representation are the fundamental and core processes and methods in landscape design. By transforming a historical industrial site into an urban cultural park for citizens’ recreational needs, the Jinhua Memorial Park in the Suining City demonstrates how landscape designers observe and represent in post-industrial renewal practice. Designers continuously deepen their understanding of the site through a process from site observation and perception, research and exploration to systematic analyses. During this process, designers were inspired by the industrial production process and textile products, and then applied such concepts in spatial arrangement and prototype for physical renovation. As the skeleton of spatial arrangement, the main road of the campus connects various functional spaces and landscape nodes of the park. Five design strategies, including in-situ preservation, transposition retention, material reuse, appearance protection, and spiritual revitalization, are applied to protect and reorganize the industrial heritages to recall the past prosperous scenes. Landscape design approaches, intuitive or implicit, are adopted to tie up the past, present, and future of the site while making a park that meets the needs of all kinds of users.
Post-Industrial Renovation; Urban Renewal; Observation; Design Representation; Urban Park
Observation and Reflection of the Country Park — Nanchang Red Earth Heritage Park
作者：孙翀 SUN Chong
Located in the suburb of Nanchang City in Jiangxi Province, the Nanchang Red Earth Heritage Park is positioned as a country park that features vast vermicular red earth and Pinus massoniana forest. The off-site review and on-site exploration suggested that the site was confronting with problems of severer soil erosion, biodiversity loss, and intensive human intervention. Both to preserve the symbolic red earth in the site and to reduce cost due to limited budget, a country park requiring low intervention and maintenance was proposed. The park would also engage citizens with geological and scientific education programs and create diverse interactive experience. The design strategies were optimized through continuous site observation and reflection, both with historical and existing data in a broader sense and individual feeling by on-site exploration. This way of dialogue and connection to the site finally gives birth to a natural country park that stays in harmony with nature.
Country Park; Vermicular Red Earth; Observation; Ecological Restoration; Low Intervention; Natural Experience
Íchni: Devices for a Joyful Architecture
作者：王芷序 Isabella Zhixu ONG
Can architecture prompt the body into more complex actions? An active body is a joyful body, and our sedentary behaviors are inhibiting the delightful encounters of spaces. Architecture should, in fact, inspire active and engaging experiences.
Íchni is a playful exploration into how spatial devices can increase the body’s potential to act through the use of interactive technology; an investigation in generating affective feedback loops between surrounding objects and the body through a physical-digital system. Through developing “choreographic devices” — playable structures embedded with physical sensors — and a virtual projection overlay, the physical forces of movements are captured as data points, then translated and projected back into the environment, heightening the awareness of our actions to affect the manner in which we move through a generative environment.
Space; Movement; Affective Feedback; Physical Sensors; Virtual Projection; Interaction; Technology
Curated Viewsheds — Landscape Planning and Design of the Mount Kumgang International Tourist Zone on the Korean Peninsula
作者：李玉寒 LI Yuhan
Mount Kumgang, located in the middle of the eastern coastal area of the Korean Peninsula, has been a cultural symbol of this region historically. It stretches across two countries, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) and the Republic of Korea (ROK). The former enjoys two thirds of the total area and rich natural landscape and cultural relics, which is now known as the Mount Kumgang International Tourist Zone. The design responds to the bond of both DPRK and ROK people through design approaches while celebrating the rich natural and cultural resources of Mount Kumgang. By building a tourist zone planning system based on a visual network, the design would improve the sight-seeing system for the both sides of Mount Kumgang and provide references for the local government on the future development of the area. However, when faced with challenges such as the inadequacy of literature, missing data, and difficulties in field survey, the author explored into the Korean culture and studied the blue-and-green-color landscape painting and line drawing techniques from the famous Korean painting Geumgang Jeondo and the “Panorama Map of Diamond Mountain” (1939), combining with computer-generated graphics in the design drawing. Meanwhile, to help audience better read the site and design concepts and strategies, two types of material models were also introduced. Finally, the suitable design strategies and deliberated representation together provide thoughts for the development and construction to Mount Kumgang in the future.
Viewshed Analysis; Landscape Planning; Tourist Zone; Graphic Representation; Cultural Landscape