《景观设计学》2020年第1期作 者：罗涛（LUO Tao），林宇晨（LIN Yuchen）,克里斯蒂娜•冯•哈伦（Christina von HAAREN）等类 别：景观出 版 社：高等教育出版社有限公司出版时间：2020年2月
Work with and by Nature: The Essence of Territorial Spatial Planning and Ecological Restoration, By Yu Kongjian
Over the past two months, I have visited three cities facing severe and challenging living environment: Mexico City, Dhaka, and Bangkok, capitals respectively of Mexico, Bangladesh, and Thailand.
In Mexico City I was accompanied by local urban experts and heads from national and municipal water authorities to make a long site survey along the river valley. At the source of the river in the mountains, I enjoyed the clear and cool stream water. But, entering the city, the river became turbid and stinky. Sprawling urban buildings and roads transformed the meandering river into a narrow channel. Facing seasonal flooding, the city invested generous funds to channelize the river with high levees. The river that was once beautiful and had brought great benefits to the city now is imprisoned in thick concrete, dark pipes, drained as sewage. At the end of wits, the city is constructing a larger pipeline system to transfer water from other basins, as a costly solution to the deteriorating living condition, to meet the city’s daily need. Now any green ecological infrastructure is covered with reinforced concrete, degrading the river’s ability to self-regulate and causing severer heat island effect. The city, once surrounded by lakes, has almost used up its groundwater and the water from the adjacent sources and is suffering from subsidence year by year, not to mention the erased cultural landscape of the indigenous Aztecs.
In Dhaka, visitors are warned not to drink the tap water because the surface water, as well as the water from natural sources conveyed by municipal pipes, is almost contaminated. Led by the local guide, I visited a gated community, thought to have the best living environment in the country, that was heavily fortified away from its surrounding. The park nearby the community was the only green space in central Dhaka. The river that passed through the park had been cut into isolated ponds, full of dark and stinky water. Rows of fish mouths emerged at the water inlet — the fish were struggling to breathe. Despite the great effort the government has made in water management, very little has affected. Surprisingly, large numbers of people come to the park, like the fish reaching their mouths out of the water trying to breathe. The park was the rare place where they could get relieved. A new city is in the works on the other side of the river, where currently a low-lying floodplain is often inundated with water two-meter deep in the rainy season. Occasionally, several tree-covered islands emerge and are regarded as sacred religion spots. A constructed levee separates villages from the floodplain. At the base of the levee there is a pond formed by the excavated dirt. It serves as the water source for the villages during the dry season. This idyllic scene and lifestyle is dramatically different from the crowded Dhaka across the river.
Finally, in Bangkok I revisited an urban design project of my team, which is also one of the largest resettlement projects in the city in recent years. The government relocated a 100-year-old tobacco factory and transformed the site into a forest park. However, such an urban ecological restoration action is utterly inadequate for a city with a population of over 10 million. Tourists from all over the world enjoy Bangkok’s rich architecture and culture a lot — the unique pagodas and temples, or the meticulous Thai service. However, when I walked out of fancy hotels with exotic aroma in the air, I experienced a completely different and more authentic Bangkok when passing through the streets and along the canals. Guided by local experts, I took a boat along an ancient canal that was once the lifeblood of Bangkok. Besides the temples with hundreds of years of history, what came into my view were the abandoned orchards on both sides, obsolete residences and stores, and derelict mansions covered by overgrown tropical vegetation. I wondered why such a unique water corridor had declined. Our guides explained that the canal was once the most popular destinations in the area. However, to protect the local residents from floods, the government built estuary gates that resisted floods but also limited boating. As a result, tourists no longer came and the locals had moved elsewhere. Worse, auto infrastructure had replaced water transportation, and, along with the declined floating communities and markets, Bangkok is suffering from an increasing congestion of urban roads and heavy air pollution.
All of the three cities have strong historical connections with nature. Yet, in each the relationship has been cut off, whether it is the loss of the Aztec floating gardens, the decline of Dhaka settlements that can accommodate floods, or the fading of Bangkok’s floating markets. As urban construction encroaches on key natural systems, including lakes and rivers, urban growth often overpowers natural resiliency. In these cases, cities begin to rely on grey infrastructure rather than ecological infrastructure, resulting in a loss of sustainable ecosystem services. Cities must become better at territorial spatial planning and have the foresight to develop and grow while preserving and improving existing ecosystems.
The next question is how do we remedy the current urban challenges resulted from humans’ shortsightedness, ignorance or arrogance, and how do we repair urban landscapes that are no longer suitable for human inhabitation? The answer is to restore the natural systems in cities by preserving more room for nature; to restore the continuity and integrity of the natural system of mountains, waters, forests, fields, lakes, and grasslands; and to help maximize the ecosystem services of these natural systems.
Essentially, territorial spatial planning and ecological restoration is to work with and by nature that would provide generous ecosystem services for humans, and, eventually, to increase people’s well-being and enhance cities’ development of sustainability.
 Lemon, J. (2018, September 14). Mexico city is sinking while also running out of drinking water. Newsweek. Retrieved from https://www.newsweek.com/mexico-city-sinking-while-also-running-out-water-1122482
 Hasan, M. K., Shahriar, A., & Jim, K. U. (2019). Water pollution in Bangladesh and its impact on public health. Heliyon, 5(8), e02145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02145
 Batra, A. (2014). Floating markets: Balancing the needs of visitors as a tourist attraction and locals way of life. A case study of Talingchan floating market, Bangkok Thailand. International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Systems, 7(2), 1-8.
【英文刊名】Landscape Architecture Frontiers • Ecological Restoration through Territorial Spatial Planning
【作者】罗涛（LUO Tao），林宇晨（LIN Yuchen）,克里斯蒂娜•冯•哈伦（Christina von HAAREN）等
Values and Legal Framework of German Landscape Planning and the Implications
作者：罗涛，林宇晨，克里斯蒂娜•冯•哈伦，王志芳 LUO Tao, LIN Yuchen, Christina von Haaren, WANG Zhifang
German landscape planning has gathered many experiences and become an outstandingly working system of the nation’s territorial spatial planning. By reviewing its history, values, and legal framework, this paper summarizes the experience of German landscape planning and draws conclusions for its success into four logics: 1) the normative basis for the evaluation and deduction of objectives is transparent and stems primarily from ethical and cultural values; 2) social development needs are considered in the overall spatial planning and local participation processes; 3) planning methods include ways to effective implementation; and 4) the principle of subsidiary and the scale effect of landscape processes are considered. These logics are reflected and guaranteed by the German legislation. With a profound understanding of China’s reality, the authors argue that China needs more efforts to further separate the right to use and the revenues from the ownership of the spatial resources, and build a balancing mechanism for public-private interest negotiation to ensure the fairness of planning; In addition to enriching the evaluation standards and methodological standards for territorial spatial planning, a greater attention should be given to enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of public participation at lower planning levels by establishing respective routines of bottom up initiatives and processes; Within the “Five-Level and Three-Type framework,” China should introduce cross-level and cross-regional planning coordination mechanism that facilitates the paid supply and compensation mechanism of ecological public goods like ecosystem services.
Territorial Spatial Planning; Landscape Planning; Values; Legal Framework; Comparative Analysis; Germany
New Paradigms of Territorial Planning and (Post-)Mining Ecological Restoration in the Andes
作者：玛格丽塔•马萨罗，布鲁诺•德•缪德尔，凯利•香农 Margarita MACERA, Bruno De MEULDER, Kelly SHANNON
The paper argues for the necessity of a new paradigm of ecological restoration in the face of mining extraction in the Latin American Andes. It begins with a critical reading of the extra-territorial connections between mining sites and settlements and unfolds their ambivalent relations through chronic cycles of ecological destruction. The analysis focuses on the territorial logics embedded in four mining-settlements of the Peruvian Andes and their development from the eighteenth to the twenty-first century. Potosí, Huancavelica, Hualgayoc, and Cajamarca form part of an extended network of landscape infrastructures and headwater resources, all of which have been (and continue to be) significantly disturbed through mining operations. The sites have inherited a relentless production of Acid Mine Drainage in addition to other hazardous post-mining ecologies. Tangible evidence of ecological misbalance demonstrates the enduring impact of past-mining activities even centuries after mineral extraction has ceased. The paper reflects on present-day practices of post-mining landscape restoration in accordance with current Peruvian legislation. It concludes with a plea for a new form of territorial planning as well as both the conception and perception of post-mining landscapes through inclusion of design strategies for Cajamarca. Such planning needs to reconcile the contradictory elements of mineral extraction, environmental engineering, and self-sustainable ecological development. Intelligent design research is a major support for such an endeavor.
Landscape Design; Post-Mining Landscapes; Ecological Restoration; Andes; Hualgayoc; Cajamarca
Ecological Extension of Regulatory Planning in China’s Territorial Spatial Planning System: A Case Study on Mentougou District, Beijing
作者：陈学璐，李崛，许立言 CHEN Xuelu, LI Jue, XU Liyan
The current reform of China’s territorial spatial planning system is with profound expectation. Key to the implementation of spatial plans, regulatory detailed planning needs an improvement in preparation methods, indicator systems, coordination, and feasibility, etc. More work is urgently needed to make up the deficiencies of land use regulation and ecological restoration of territorial spaces. This paper devises methods for the ecological extension of regulatory planning with the theory of ecological security pattern. With Mentougou District in Beijing as a case study, this paper demonstrates the methods and roadmaps for ecological extension through land use control and community control and management. By analyzing the conflicts of ecological security and construction activities with a balancing mechanism, this study improves ecological control zoning and formulates regulatory principles and indicators. A thoughtful paradigm of preparation methods for the ecological extension of regulatory planning thus comes into being, which would offer references for the implementation and precise regulation of territorial spatial planning in China’s era of Ecological Civilization.
Territorial Spatial Planning; Regulatory Planning; Ecological Extension; Land Use Control; Community Control and Management; Ecological Process Traceback
Cognition and Research Framework of Water Adaptive Landscapes with the Case Study on Mentougou District, Beijing
作者：张晋 ZHANG Jin
Water adaptive landscape is a typical regional complex formed by mutual adaptation between humans and water systems. As a subfield of adaptation research in the context of global changes, research on water adaptive landscapes emphasizes the combination of research perspectives and methods on water, adaptation, and landscape. This paper first reviews the concepts of “adaptation” in related disciplines, summarizes the primary attributes of adaptation, and puts forward a definition and research scope of water adaptive landscape. While pointing out that research on water adaptive landscapes mainly studies the processes, capacities, and strategies of relevant spatial forms and behavioral patterns, it also presents the research progress and achievements in the experience of spatial patterns and construction, evaluation, and narrative analysis, before proposing a research framework of water adaptive landscape by focusing on Mentougou District of Beijing. Finally, it offers prospects for future study from the aspects of research framework, quantitative methods, social cognition, and feasibility.
Water Adaptive Landscape; Water; Adaptation; Landscape; Cognition; Research Framework; Mentougou District
The Roles of Soundscape Approaches in Landscape Design
作者：蒿亦颖，邵钰涵 HAO Yiying, SHAO Yuhan
Soundscape starts from human’s perception and understanding of users’ needs and expectations of a space in an un-visual observation and expression form. Similar to visual landscape, soundscape cost-benefit can be rather attractive. However, how to integrate soundscape approaches into landscape design has not been sufficiently understood or applied by designers and practitioners. This paper aims to discuss the roles of soundscape approaches in landscape design by exploring the research outcomes, national policies, and the state-of-the-art design practice especially across the UK. The design elements of landscape have been demonstrated to be able to form positive soundscape in terms of both noise barrier and positive sound source, although there is still a lack of research on soundscape approaches in landscape design. Besides, relevant policies should encourage appropriate soundscapes and diversity of soundscapes in both urban and rural areas, which could provide more possibilities for landscape designers to create innovative design solutions for noise problems. The landscape design options need further development through collaboration and innovative thinking so that a greater variety of solutions can be implemented. Soundscape approaches are those which take into account interests of different groups, including transport authorities and developers. Coordinated solutions can be defined with the help of landscape and urban architects to fulfil stakeholders’ interests by creating a desirable urban soundscape.
Soundscape Approach; Landscape Design; Sound Masking; Perception; Acoustic Environment
Struggles and Opportunities of the Discipline and Profession of Landscape Architecture in China’s Territorial Spatial Planning Reform
作者：李迪华 LI Dihua
A true understanding of Ecological Civilization Construction is key to comprehend the connotation and goals of China’s territorial spatial planning, which echoes the ideological keynote of the country’s upgrade of socio-economic development mode. Missioned as a means to public policy making, territorial spatial planning develops roadmaps for Ecological Civilization Construction by addressing macro spatial governance problems such as the shortage of resources, severe environmental pollution, and ecosystem degradation. Furthermore, the author interprets the relationship between ecological restoration and territorial spatial planning system, and argues that the territorial spatial planning system should employ a macro-medium-micro hierarchy in scale while focusing on life-circle ecological restoration planning and implementation. In addition to the necessity of developing cross-administrative border plans, the author emphasizes the importance of multi-disciplinary cooperation. Then, he points out that “The Two Assessment Standards” should value regional characteristics and avoid to indiscriminately apply planning and design patterns in different cases. Finally, the author puts forward suggestions to practitioners in Landscape Architecture and other allied professions to prepare themselves by self-retraining with new concepts, methodologies, and technologies to be more competent for the contemporary needs of territorial spatial planning.
Territorial Spatial Planning; Landscape Design; Landscape Architecture; Ecological Civilization Construction; Ecological Restoration; Design Education
Positioning Regional Design in Chinese Territorial spatial Planning: An Exploratory Project in the Yangtze River Delta Megacity Region
作者：克里斯蒂安•诺尔夫，谢雨婷 Christian NOLF, XIE Yuting
By restructuring its planning system and integrating competences of land resource and water management, environmental conservation, agriculture, as well as spatial planning, under a same Ministry of Natural Resources in 2018, China ambitioned to definitively turn the page on inconsistent and sectoral planning practices. However, existing planning instruments are still linked to administrative boundaries and remain statutory and regulatory in nature, which makes them inadequate to address complex and dynamic megacity regions that span across different administrative entities. The Yangtze River Delta megacity region is the subject of an ambitious integration plan which focuses on economic coordination and urban services, however, there is still no coherent vision on its spatial development at the territorial scale. This article presents the “Jiangnan Park,” a university-led and design-driven research project focusing on the vast triangular plain between cities of Shanghai, Hangzhou, and Suzhou. Using the encompassing metaphor of regional “park” and applying the emerging method of regional design, this project combines mapping, visualization, design strategies, and workshop techniques to elaborate a development vision for this historically and ecologically sensitive area. As a pioneering case of regional design in China, this project exemplifies how the use of cross-scale and cross-sectoral collaborative methods can inform the development of integrative strategies for complex megacity regions.
Regional Design; Territorial Spatial Planning; Collaborative Design; Jiangnan Park; Yangtze River Delta; Megacity Region
The Rebirth of Tropical Rainforest — Ecological Restoration Planning for Sanda Mountain of Xishuangbanna, China
作者：劳炳丽，卓伟德，朱荣远 LAO Bingli, ZHUO Weide, ZHU Rongyuan
Tropical rainforest, a unique forest ecosystem with the richest biodiversity on the earth, is now suffering from rapid biodiversity loss and ecological degradation. Xishuangbanna is such a typical example in China, where the ecosystem of Sanda Mountain is fragmented by agricultural practices and rubber plantation, and the vegetation productivity decreases sharply, threatening its role in the regional ecological security pattern. For an overall ecological improvement of the study area, since 2017, the project team has examined the existing habitat conditions in Sanda Mountain and proposed a thirty-year planning scheme for the ecological restoration by introducing constructive and pioneer plant species, employing a mixed-species planting mode, and facilitating the natural regeneration of vegetation community to recover natural succession through ecological restoration planning at patch-, corridor-, and regional-scales. The team simulated the changes in carbon storage, habitat quality, and ecosystem service value before and after planning via the InVEST model to guide the dynamic adjustment of the tropical rainforest restoration. This exploratory ecological restoration planning for such a large-scale tropical rainforest may provide research and practical references for other studies in China and abroad.
Tropical Rainforest; Ecological Restoration Planning; Restoration Methods; Benefit Assessment; Xishuangbanna
Brownfield Borders: Post-Industrial and Post-Conflicting Brownfield Landscapes
作者：尼尔•科克伍德 Niall KIRKWOOD
The Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) landscape between the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea is currently the most dangerous and heavily fortified territory in the world and has produced a series of continuously linked brownfield lands on a divided Korean Peninsula through the continued intense presence of military troops and equipment, a significant amount of defense infrastructure, and pollutant buildup over the last seventy years. The political and social reunification of the two Koreas may occur in the coming years and any work in the future to address the landscape of a unified peninsula would be required to carry out in the DMZ. The work includes a complete characterization of the land area and water bodies and the existing military infrastructure and abandoned equipment, with the proposed remediation of soils, groundwater, and drainage systems as well as the concerns of brownfield land reuse, adding new industrial manufacturing to the area, the increase of tourism into the region, and the development of both traditional and new forms of regional energy generation. The brownfields in the DMZ can be considered an extreme version of the more conventional post-industrial sites that are addressed in other urban or ex-urban venues through the methods and conventions of brownfield regeneration. Or indeed it may become a new type of brownfield site — the “brownfield border” — with its own characterization, on-site pollutants, and methods to address its ongoing remediation and reuse programs. The intention of this paper is to examine the DMZ through a recent academic study carried out through a graduate design studio at Harvard University focused on the outcomes of unification on the Korean peninsula, the remediation of border landscapes as a new type of brownfield practice, and potential planning and design of alternative futures.
Boundaries; Brownfield Borders; Remediation Technologies; Military Defense Sites; Military Brownfields; Minefields
Plasticity: Plastic-Based Infrastructure for Climate-Resilient Coastal Communities
作者：周凯蓉，费德列克•鲁伯特 CHOW Khoi Rong (Clara), Federico RUBERTO
Many of the world’s coasts are becoming increasingly urbanized, with two-fifths of cities with populations of millions located near coastlines. Coastal settlements have always been attractive due to the provision of critical inputs to industries, despite the many threats — floods, typhoons, tsunamis, etc. With the Southeast Asian market expected to become the fifth largest economy by 2020, migration from rural to urban areas is set to increase, putting a strain on existing infrastructures within the cities, one of which is the solid waste disposal and recycling infrastructure within the developing nations in Southeast Asia.
Currently in the age of the Anthropocene, it is clear that human has greatly reshaped the Earth, bending nature into the course of human wishes, terraforming the land with landfills, mines, and patchwork agriculture fields, choking the atmosphere with toxic emissions, and cloging the seas with plastic waste. Inadequate waste disposal management has resulted in poorly managed landfills with waste being washed into water during rainy seasons, jeopardizing the environment and local communities (typically the most vulnerable ones) that depend on it. This project hopes to explore the nature of plastics, by envisioning a “mechanic landscape” that manages waste input within rivers whilst creating a speculative infrastructural network that varies with environmental conditions (such as global warming and sea-level rise).
City Infrastructure; Sea-Level Rise; Territory; Plastic; Community; Manila