《景观设计学》2020年第2期作 者：徐梦一（XU Mengyi），沈瑶（SHEN Yao），廖堉珲（LIAO Yuhui）等类 别：景观出 版 社：高等教育出版社有限公司出版时间：2020年4月
What Kind of Play Space do Children Need in the City?, By Yu Kongjian
在我的童年世界里，乐园没有边界，也没有围栏，它们便是溪滩、树林、田野、菜园，还有迷宫一样的巷弄；我甚至经常翻过邻家菜园的围墙，躲藏在黄瓜架的后面，让玩捉迷藏的小伙伴好半天都找不到。更有意思的是，只要你循着弯弯窄窄的田埂，在水渠尽头的小叠瀑下，一定会看到成群的鲫鱼（Carassius auratus）在水花中嬉戏，只需用簸箕或菜篮子当渔具，便可满载而归；田头的土丘上常常会有田鼠洞，洞口藏在草丛中，我和伙伴们往洞里灌水，直到田鼠从另外一个出口逃出，正好钻进我们布设的口袋；更大的“猎物”是在白沙溪与婺江交汇处的鲤鱼（Cyprinus carpio），那正是唐代诗人戴叔伦驻足吟唱《兰溪棹歌》的地方：“兰溪三日桃花雨，半夜鲤鱼来上滩。”不同的是，春雨过后，鲤鱼在白天也会上滩，它们先是像飞箭一样，在水草中逆流穿梭，然后迅速消失在百步之外的深潭里，你必须在此之前将其擒住。一群小孩当然很少有成功的，但在溪滩上捕鱼确实有无限的乐趣，至今还常常在我的梦境中重现。
虽然从没有买过玩具，但我的玩具也有不少，比如到村前水塘边挖一块黄泥，把它捏成坦克的车身和轮子，然后在太阳下曝晒，再把晒干的零件组装起来，操纵它在石板桥上隆隆开动；或用黄土捏出冲锋的士兵，再将水菖蒲（Acorus calamus）的叶子做成剑戟。挑选一个理想的树枝做弹弓并不容易，乌桕（Sapium sebiferum）的丫杈是最好的，柳树（Salix spp.）的枝条却不行。用溪滩上的大叶芦竹（Arundo donax）可以做笛子，但最好是用邻家老宅基上长出来的刚竹（Phyllostachys viridis），吹起来声音更加清亮。
早春天，盼着棕榈（Trachycarpus fortunei）花穗从厚厚的叶片包裹中挤出，那是玩打仗游戏最好的弹药，掰下那粟米一样的花粒装进口袋，鼓鼓囊囊的，有种被武装起来的威武感，随时准备与同伴“战斗”；再用花序的苞衣做成帆船，放到水渠中顺流而下。秋天可以做玩具的东西就更多了，我会跟在大人们身后，等他们剥去苎麻（Boehmeria nivea）的纤维，再捡拾白花花的麻杆，用来搭建“房子”；我还会爬上无患子（Sapindus mukorossi）树，摘下金灿灿的果实，把皮剥下来交给姐姐们拿去当肥皂，我则只收藏其中的黑色种子，日积月累，收集了好几罐，偶尔分给同伴们，还因此在他们当中获得了相当高的地位。
Compared to children in the city today, my childhood might seem lacking. There was no special playground, no reading room with new pictured books, no Legos, no sophisticated robot toys of different shapes, no sandpits or colorful slides. There were no parents driving to school to pick up children and no crossing guards at the school gate. At the same time, there were also many reasons that my childhood was a happy one.
When I was a child, the play space had no fences. Creeks, woods, fields, vegetable gardens, and maze-like alleys were all playgrounds. When playing hide-and-seek, I often climbed over walls to hide behind cucumber trellises in my neighbor’s vegetable garden. What was more interesting, if one followed the winding and narrow field banks, groups of crucian carps (Carassius auratus) could be found playing under the cascade at the end of irrigation canals; they could be caught easily just with winnowing fans or bamboo baskets. There were many carves of voles in crop fields, and I often caught voles for fun by pouring water into the holes. One of the best games was catching carp (Cyprinus carpio) at the intersection of the Baisha Stream and the Wujiang River, where Dai Shulun, a poet from the Tang Dynasty, wrote his famous poetry named A Fishman’s Song of Lanxi River, describing the carps that gathered around and jumped onto the river shoal in midnights after spring rains. To my knowledge, carps also appeared during daytime, passing so swiftly through aquatic plants; it was almost impossible to catch them but always joyful to have a try. Such a great fun still remains refresh in my memory.
When I was five or six, my mother bought me a pair of rabbits and a goat from a farmhouse several kilometers away. I was responsible for looking after them and they became my beloved companions. Young rabbits are always matched in pairs, so I learned to identify their sex, which is not an easy task; I also knew that plants like water pepper (Polygonum hydropiper) or wet grasses cannot be fed with rabbits; when the rabbits grew up and prepared to breed, they would make a nest from grass and mud — living in a cage as a children’s pet nowadays is harm to their habit. Then the rabbit babies were sold on market to help with family expenses. My goat was not selected well. It grew up slowly and gave birth to only one lamb after three years. Later they were both sold, which made me very sad. Nonetheless, the experience of raising the goat and herding it every day after school brought lots of fun. It was a joy to be immersed in nature as I walked with the goat: I explored the undulating fields, the mysterious lands, the mountain creeks with cool air, and the open grasslands behind the willow groves.
Although I never bought toys, I had lots of things to play. The mud dug out of the pond could be made into a shape of tank and then left it to dry in the sun. The dried tank became a fantastic toy along with mud “soldiers” with calamus (Acorus calamus) “swords.” Other times I would make slingshots from branches of Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum), rather than willow trees (Salix spp.). For a flute, bamboo reeds (Arundo donax), especially rigid bamboo (Phyllostachys viridis), are the best for a clear and melodious sound.
In the early spring, the corn-like spikes of palms (Trachycarpus fortunei) were always the best “ammunition” for battle games, which could be collected in pockets, making me feel armed, mighty, and ready to “fight” at any time. Their spathes could float in the canal as “ships.” In the autumn, there were more materials to make toys. I often followed the adults, waiting for them to strip the fiber of ramies (Boehmeria nivea), then picking up the white stalks to build “houses.” I would also climb chinaberry trees (Sapindus mukorossi) to harvest the golden fruits, saving their skins as soaps and collecting the small black seeds for trading with friends, which brought me high status among them.
On the way to school along the edges of fields, I never worried about being hit by a car or needed protection of my parents. The sound of gurgling creeks, splashing frogs, and chirping birds kept me company. Kids from neighboring villages also ran to school, jumping up and down through the fields, where the breezing green crops seemed to echo their cheers.
Today, children in the city are besieged by busy streets and harden water systems full of latent danger, and they often have to stay close to home. Video games create an artificial world for children, artificial play places increase, and the so-called “natural” landscapes in urban parks are nothing but neatly trimmed horticultural plants — now finding a firefly becomes a luxury. I do not want to suggest that such an environment has not engendered childlike joy or enlightenment; but I am afraid that children in the city could hardly imagine a world with jumping carps, inflorescences of palm trees, and the dramatic micro-climate changes within the undulating landform.
【英文刊名】Landscape Architecture Frontiers • Children and Urban Environments
【作者】徐梦一（XU Mengyi），沈瑶（SHEN Yao），廖堉珲（LIAO Yuhui）等
Evaluation Indicators of Children’s Mobility Safety in the Community Environment
Based on English Literature Review
作者：徐梦一，沈瑶，廖堉珲，海伦•伍利 XU Mengyi, SHEN Yao, LIAO Yuhui, Helen WOOLLEY
The Child Friendly Cities Initiative launched by UNICEF aims to protect child rights and promote the establishment of urban and community environment conductive to children development, and safety must be guaranteed first as the precondition of the child rights. Based on social, health, and mobility safety required by the initiative, this paper focuses on how to evaluate children’s mobility safety in the community environment. After literature review, 41 indicator articles involving 18 assessment tools and 82 other articles were screened, and safety-related indicators were selected to establish an evaluation indicator framework composed of three first-level indictors, i.e., motor traffic environment, walking / bicycling environment, and other indicators. They were further subdivided into 11 second-level indicators, 29 third-level indicators, and more fourth-level indicators. Although this framework needs localized verification and adaption in Chinese cities, it can help systematically improve the mobility safety requirements of the existing regulations and guidelines of urban environment construction to establish a multi-leveled indicator system and provide references for performance evaluation on related practice at all stages.
Child Friendly City; Mobility Safety; Community Environment; Walking and Bicycling; Evaluation Indicators; Literature Review
Afterschool Activity of Children Living in Urban Villages and Planned Communities in Shenzhen
作者：约翰•扎卡赖亚斯，韩西丽，陈义勇 John ZACHARIAS, HAN Xili, CHEN Yiyong
Afterschool is an important time period for children to improve their weekday physical activity. This study aimed at filling a gap in people’s knowledge of middle school children’s afterschool activity in China. In order to study afterschool activity of children living in urban villages and planned communities in Shenzhen, a questionnaire was applied in three schools located in the typical school districts in Shenzhen, aimed at a 100% sample of randomly selected classrooms. Complete data for moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (MVPA), cram schools, sedentary activities, and the itineraries of their school-to-home commutes were obtained for 5 weekdays in one week in an in-class survey, for a total of 366 complete surveys. It was found that a greater active commuting distance from school generated more MVPA, and there was a distance threshold for active commutes. Children residing in urban villages travelled farther and engaged in more MVPA than did children in planned residential areas. MVPA varied greatly among children but was unrelated to the number of cram schools or transport mode to school. Although these results showed greater levels of afterschool activity than that have been found generally in surveys in Western contexts, such active activity terminates in the final year of middle school when students devote nearly all available time to study for high school entrance exams. This study revealed the importance of social context and distance to school for children’s MVPA in China, and pointed out that the current urban planning contributes to active travel of children but needs further adjustment to mitigate the effects of increasing motorization, bigger roads, and physical barriers to movement.
Children; Physical Activity; Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA); Active Commuting; Urban Village; Middle School; Cram School
The Establishment and Analyses of the Social Network of Participants in Child-Friendly Community Building — A Case of The Kids’ Gardens in Yucai No. 3 Primary School in Changsha, Hunan Province
作者：彭姗妮，周晨，周雅昕 PENG Shanni, ZHOU Chen, ZHOU Yaxin
Introducing the case of the Kids’ Gardens in Yucai No. 3 Primary School in Changsha City, Hunan Province, this study established sociograms upon the contact-frequency-based network with UCINET to systematically analyze the characteristics of different participants in the process of the child-friendly community building and the varying pattern of all social relations, aiming at addressing problems emerging in public participation and multi-stakeholder collaboration in Chinese mainland. It was found that by bonding stakeholders including citizens, the government and party organizations, universities, and public institutions and enterprises, this practice encouraged the school — as a community — to leverage its internal resources. The school finally overcame the organizational inertia and achieved independent operation and growth during the process of community building. The study also demonstrated that the social network of participants was developed and defined with both independent and dependent modes from an overall perspective, of which the former characterized for its dominant internal ties and a dense tree-like hierarchical management structure might be more efficient. From a participant perspective, the brokerage roles in key nodes were critical to the community building. Finally, spatial design strategies, including enhancing the spatial affordance to serve diverse activities, space zoning and allocation, offering “half-done” spaces, and phased development, were provided for similar community building practice.
Participants; Social Network; Children; Community Building; Kids’ Gardens; Cultivation; Spatial Design
Comparative Research of Audit Tools on Built Environment for Active Living
作者：徐振，王沂凡，徐秋霞，韩凌云，徐斐 XU Zhen, WANG Yifan, XU Qiuxia, HAN Lingyun, XU Fei
Nowadays, chronic non-communicable diseases have impacted the overall public health level of societies and caused severe socio-economic burden. Empirical studies have revealed that physical activities can promote active living and help prevent and heal non-communicable diseases. Evaluation of built environment factors associated with physical activities is the precondition of promoting active living through environmental planning and design. This paper focuses on environmental audit tools related to physical activities, reviews the background, interests, and progress of international research, and compares the option forms, main measured factors, scoring methods, and application suitability of 26 audit tools. It then categorizes these audit tools into the ones for community, open space, and other scenarios, and examines their indicator items respectively. The paper concludes a preparation pattern across various audit tools, and identifies that facilities, accessibility, visual quality, and safety are the indicators most commonly measured. This paper attempts to introduce international experience of developing, analyzing, and verifying audit tools to inform Chinese research and practice and provide references for evaluating the design and construction of healthy cities or communities.
Audit Tool; Built Environment; Physical Activity; Health Impact Assessment; Urban Design; Quick Environmental Assessment
The Development, Connotations, and Interests of Research on Landscape Performance Evaluation for Evidence-Based Design
作者：杨阳，林广思 YANG Yang, LIN Guangsi
Landscape performance evaluation plays an important role in Landscape Architecture’s transformation to an evidence-based science. Most of existing relevant studies focus on the selection of evaluation indicators and methods, or description of the sustainability characteristics of completed projects, while in-depth theoretical discussion on its development processes and essential connotation is still in shortage. By tracing back and comparing the theoretical characteristics and development relationships of the three major systems — POE, SITES, and LPS, this paper clarifies the evolution of landscape performance evaluation towards serving evidence-based design, and further expounds its connotation of discovering the causality of design strategies and benefit results. Finally, two research interests, “feedback analysis of design efficiency” and “producing practical and operable knowledge” are proposed with significance as a key to support high-performance landscape design practices with reliable evidences.
Landscape Performance Evaluation; Post Occupancy Evaluation; Sustainable Sites Initiative; Evidence-Based Design; Design Efficiency; Research and Practice
The Cognitive Science of Urban Space Design for Children
作者：斯黛拉•克里斯蒂，吕金云，方艺瑾，韩西丽 Stella CHRISTIE, LYU Jinyun, FANG Yijin, HAN Xili
An important consideration in designing urban spaces for children is that it should aid children’s development and learning. An extensive literature from Cognitive Science has established that children’s social, cognitive, and motor development is promoted by various, well-researched types of play. This article reviews the body of knowledge from Cognitive and Developmental Science concerning the benefits of play for learning and explains that it can and should be harnessed by urban designers. First, the review shows that different types of play confer different learning benefits. Urban space design that attempts to maximize learning from play should consider design’s affordance — what types of play are afforded by the design. Second, evidence from Cognitive Science show that children’s learning and exploration are fostered by challenge and ambiguity. Design that embraces these increases learning and creativity. Third, play is critical for children’s social learning, as it gives children the opportunity to practice social interaction. Urban design can catalyze social learning by creating spaces and structures that invite play among peers, as well as parent-child play. Beyond this theoretical review, this article also illustrates how to realistically implement these Cognitive Science-oriented urban design with an authentic case study.
Urban Design; Children; Cognitive Science; Learning; Play
Child’s Infrastructure in Cities — Urban Planning and Design to Guarantee Child Rights
作者：彭文洁 PENG Wenjie
This article reviews the concepts of child rights and Child Friendly City at first and underlines that essentially Child Friendly City construction is to protect and guarantee child rights. By examining China’s reality of the design practice for children, the author points out that to build a Child Friendly City, two challenges must be addressed: interpreting child rights in different societal and cultural contexts, and mitigating interest conflicts between the protection of child rights with the current urban construction. In response, the author emphasizes the importance to build child’s infrastructure that is devised to serve varied scenarios, purposes, and childhoods, as well as the fact that this is not a once-for-all investment but requires an evolving planning mechanism. Finally, the article states that children’s participation is the key to Child Friendly City construction and the greatest challenge to local implementation, which asks for long-term capacity building for children’s participation and strong support by a top-down management system.
Child Rights; Child Friendly City; Child‘s Infrastructure; Urban Planning; Evolving Planning; Children’s Participation
Responsibilities and Roles of Landscape Architects in the Establishment of Child Friendly City
作者：黄伊伟 HUANG Yiwei
More than 20 years have passed since the launch of the Child Friendly Cities Initiative. However, relevant practices in China are still insufficient and laggard. This article concludes two reasons: 1) children participation in the design process is far insufficient and results in the failure of the expression of core users’ demands; and 2) landscape architects less think of the holism of such children spaces at a city scale with considerations on city’s cultural identity and societal backdrops, and also ignore the influence of such places on children’s development. With these problems in mind, this article proposes that landscape architects can draw inspiration from the Ecological Systems Theory and Public Participation Theory, actively expanding their responsibilities in the establishment of Child Friendly City. Following that, three international case studies, namely Growing Up Boulder Initiative, Play and Informal Recreation Strategy of London, and Green Schoolyard America, are introduced to demonstrate that landscape architects should not just design proposals, but act as coordinators among different parties and leaders of innovative urban space renovation. As the integrator of the urban spatial framework, landscape architects should go beyond the design of individual playgrounds and focus on improving community environment and the spatial pattern of the whole city, in order to protect child rights and to realize integration and improvement of urban spaces.
Child Friendly City; Urban Space; Ecological Systems Theory; Public Participation; Participatory Design; Landscape Architecture; Social Responsibilities
Urban Public Space for Children — Landscape Design of Tetris Square in Guangzhou
作者：钟惠城 ZHONG Huicheng
Tetris Square is a commercial plaza located in a corner of a large mixed-use development in Tianhe District, Guangzhou. Designers treated the site as an urban public space rather than a commercial place simply for children play, with focus on younger users and core families. Landscape architects attempt to respond to a series of community demands with a smarter proposal. Instead of a direct use of finished play equipment, designers create many flexible spaces for diverse play experience, and “hide” a grove by integrating it into the play facilities, which introduces an urban oasis attracting more visitors to the square. This does not follow the conventional design principle of commercial spaces which is to plant as few trees as possible for a maximum storefront display. The grid modules of squares make facility fabrication and installation much easier, helping save the costs and ensure the construction quality. Assembled precast concrete outdoor furniture was used extensively in the whole complex. Landscape architects designed only two basic precast concrete modules, which could be assembled into more than twenty combinations. Now Tetris Square is an urban playground for children and their parents, as well as a public space for other residents in adjacent communities. The project provides children with fun and happiness through user-friendly and naturalized design, encouraging children’s cognitive learning from the external world, and simulating their imagination and creativity in play.
Urban Public Space; Children Playground; Plaza; Parent-Child; Commercial Space
Landscape Renovation of Shekou School Square in Shenzhen
作者：黄丹霞，梁瑞华 HUANG Danxia, LIANG Ruihua
The landscape renovation project of Shekou School Square in Nanshan District of Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China is a micro renewal of urban public space. Through a seven-day investigation on user behaviors of the square, the design team recorded various usage needs and learned about the deep feelings of the local residents to the site. The team then conceived a design theme of “Time Story” by opening the boundary of the site and creating recreational spaces and features such as modular seats, school logo display wall, childhood game silhouettes on planters, interactive installations for science education, and physical game patterns on the ground, the needs of various groups were met and more ways to use the square could be developed. The team adopted a research-based method and refined design to create a public space that is conducive to the physical and mental health of children and the elderly, promoting communication and interaction between different user groups, and significantly improving the quality of urban public space. In addition, the team’s post-occupancy observation and reflections on maintenance and utilization provide valuable experience for future design.
Pocket Park; Children; Micro Urban Renewal; Corner Square; Modular Design
Safe Play Spaces for Children in Emergency Contexts
作者：里卡尔多•卢卡•康迪 Riccardo Luca CONTI
The article reflects on the IBTASEM playground project, looking at the process that led CatalyticAction’s co-founders to implement this particular space for Syrian refugee children in Lebanon, and aiming at understanding how architecture can respond to the challenges that vulnerable communities face, and how it could improve existing humanitarian practices. The article begins with a description of the Syrian refugee crisis and how it links to the concept behind the IBTASEM playground project, and then explores the participatory process that CatalyticAction used to implement the project and the design values including using local materials and local labors to promote the local economy. Lastly the article introduces other projects targeting refugee children CatalyticAction has carried out in recent years. After over 5 years of practice working with communities, CatalyticAction has proven that the play space has a massive role in improving the wellbeing of vulnerable populations and it should not be overlooked when planning for emergency response.
Children; Refugees; Playground; Design; Syria; Lebanon
An Urban Response to Covid-19: Supporting Babies, Toddlers, and Those Who Care for Them
作者：闻智渊 Julien VINCELOT
A million new neural connections are formed every second in a baby’s brain. These connections lay the foundations of their lifelong development, and are shaped by the amount and quality of care they receive from their primary caregivers, and by their immediate environment. To protect their health and limit negative consequences from COVID-19 on their long-term development, cities need to tailor their COVID-19 response to the needs of babies, toddlers, and their caregivers. The COVID-19 pandemic affects babies and toddlers in cities by making it harder for their caregivers — most often their parents — to access their regular support systems, due to closures of services and key infrastructure such as parks, mobility restrictions, or isolation from the community. Cities can actively support caregivers through a range of solutions allowing remote access, or adapting infrastructure, services, and facilities to ensure safe in-person access to key services and urban spaces. This does not always require new solutions, but rather a systematic consideration of their needs into existing interventions. To do so, cities can combine empathy methods with data about families, and use those when assessing the situation, and then locating and designing their urban response to COVID-19.
Babies and Toddlers; Caregiving; COVID-19; Urban95 Initiative; Empathy; Data