《景观设计学》2020年第3期作 者：陈崇贤（CHEN Chongxian），夏宇（XIA Yu），杨潇豪（YANG Xiaohao）等类 别：景观出 版 社：高等教育出版社有限公司出版时间：2020年6月
The conflict between ecological and industrial civilizations here, different from what was presented in Samuel Huntington’s The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, is about the methods, technologies, and world views. This is a tortuous struggle in which humans battle generation to generation for civilization to survive. The envisioned beautiful ecological civilization requires ideological reform and technological advance—a true revolution, in some sense, by solutions supported by the nature, which can respond to the social and economic demands of change more cost-effectively. That is to say, natural forces, instead of the engineering approaches symbolized by industrial civilization, may contribute to the urban resilience in their ingenuity addressing crises such as climate change, flooding, and water and soil pollution.
On March 14, 2017, I got a sudden call from Xi Zhinong, a wildlife photographer for help: “They are cementing the riverbed of the Shuangyuan Stream in Dali. Nine concrete dams are to be built. It is cruel! How can I protect the stream?” Having lived near the stream for about ten years, Xi and his daughters enjoyed the cool water, rocks, and wildflowers that bloomed in different seasons. This cementing project would deprive them of the joy their beloved natural stream brought. I noticed in the video he sent that both the rocks and plants in the stream were being shattered and removed by excavators near his house. His choked voice made me feel the pain he was suffering.
Xi called me because in 2005 we had worked on an anti-seepage project for Yuanmingyuan Park in Beijing, and had shared similar feelings about “letting nature breathe.” For the Dali case, we reached out the local press and persuaded the local government to halt the cementing project. Unfortunately, we failed to rescue the stream. A year later the project started again in a more violent way and the Shuangyuan Stream was finally cut apart by the nine concrete dams. The authorities had gathered many so-called “experts” and administrative forces in the name of “guaranteeing the safety of people’s lives and property,” yet they ignored the protests of ecological experts. From this project, higher-level government financed several million yuan and the local government achieved GDP growth, while engineering enterprises received huge profits. However, the economically beneficial project was achieved at the cost of natural ecosystems whose worth had accumulated for dozens of centuries. Xi and his daughters could no longer have access to the eco-experience in the beautiful valley of the Cangshan Mountains.
On April 20, 2020, the eve of World Earth Day, Xi called again. I had not heard from him for three years. “They come again!” he cried, “Instead of millions of RMB invested to the Shuangyuan Stream, they will channelize other five streams of ‘the Cangshan Eighteen Streams’.” This time, the project would cost three hundred million yuan. “Did not they notice the loss of natural resource and the accelerated water flow speed due to the dam construction three years ago? We must act at once to save these five streams!” He sounded desperate. Shortly afterwards, volunteers who dedicated themselves to nature protection launched an effort to save the river. So far, the conflict between the industrial civilization and ecological civilization about how to approach the Erhai Lake and the streams of the Cangshan Mountains are at a deadlock. Today, the authority’s response to nature protection is unassertive and inspiring, compared with 20 years ago.
I still remember the conflict 20 years ago between the government and environmentalists and scholars who opposed Beijing’s project on river management. That standoff ended in failure and was labelled as an interference in public affairs. Almost all the rivers through the downtown of Beijing were cutoff, channelized, or dammed in the name of “flood mitigation,” “pollution control,” and “improvement of living environment.” Environmentalists and scholars had warned that they would pay for this recklessness. Ironically, in less than ten years, Beijing began to dismantle the cement along rivers under a strategy of “bringing nature back,” but urban rivers keep getting channelized. In the cases of both Dali and Beijing, no goals of flood control, pollution treatment, or environmental beautification were achieved. Instead, urban resilience was consumed while water and environmental problems were only becoming more severe.
A same conflict between ecology and industry occurred in 2005 over the anti-seepage project of Yuanmingyuan Park. This experience highlights a beginning of China’s “nature-based solutions.” On March 22, 2005, I received a call from Zhang Zhengchun, an ecologist. With the same emotion as Xi in the Dali case, he anxiously told me that the lakebed of Fuhai Lake in Yuanmingyuan Park was being covered with anti-seepage geotextile. Because of this call I joined in a prolonged protest against the project. Other experts in the fields of ecology and environmental protection, including Wang Rusong (deceased), Liang Congjie (deceased), and Cui Haiting, were also involved in this effort. On March 28, People.cn took the lead to speak on this matter which promoted the State Environmental Protection Administration to hold a public hearing on the lakebed anti-seepage project. This coverage brought wide-spread attention to the project and helped create a national ecological enlightenment movement. Although the Administrative Office of Yuanmingyuan Park completed the anti-seepage project in a compromised way, the official departments of the State Environmental Protection Administration and the official media, such as People.cn, all stood with the environmentalists. This months-long effort ended up with a big win for the ecological protection movement led by the public.
The night of July 21, 2012 was also a moment to remember when a heavy storm exposed the fragile resilience of Beijing, as 79 lives were lost to flooding streets, underpasses, and cars. After decades of hydrological management, how did Beijing’s water flow become so volatile? This is by no means an academic issue, but a matter of public awareness—especially the one for the decision makers. To this end, four days later, I submitted a report entitled “Recommendations on the Establishment of a ‘Green Sponge’ to Solve the Flood Disaster in Beijing” to government official. The report quickly spread in the form of an open letter through mass media.
On August 25, 2012, Ms. Hu Jincao, a television director at China Central Television, helped broadcast a program for the “Breathing River.” The segment interviewed several officials and landscape architects advocating for a “green sponge” approach to issues of urban waterlogging. This marked a leap from grassroots movement to official policy. Such a change appeared a year later. On December 12, 2013, President Xi Jinping spoke at the Central Working Conference of Urbanization on the need for upgrading urban drainage systems. President Xi emphasized that we should give priority to retaining rainwater and leveraging natural forces to drain water, so as to build Sponge Cities where stormwater can be naturally conserved, infiltrated, and purified.
Twenty years, though a long time for individual efforts, is short for the development of civilization. The road from protesting engineering projects in Beijing to implementing nationwide Sponge Cities will be a tough journey, also for developing nature-based solutions responding to other pressing environmental problems (water and soil pollution, habitat loss, etc.). But this work is needed. China must take this route to realize healthy development for all cities. This might also become China’s greatest contribution in tackling global ecological and environmental problems!
 Faivre, N., Fritz, M., Freitas, T., De Boissezon, B., & Vandewoestijne, S. (2017). Nature-Based Solutions in the EU: Innovating with nature to address social, economic and environmental challenges. Environmental Research, (159), 509-518. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.08.032
 Dong, Y. (2007, June 29). The hardened cement rivers in Beijing are being dismantled. Retrieved from http://zqb.cyol.com/content/2007-06/29/content_1809036.htm
 Zhao, Y. (2005, March 28). Remove anti-seepage geotextile to save Yuanmingyuan Park! People’s Daily Online. Retrieved from http://env.people.com.cn/GB/1072/3274122.html
 China News Network of the CPPCC. (2012, August 8). Address urban flooding cannot simply rely on the building of drainage pipe system with large invest. China News Network of the CPPCC. Retrieved from http://cppcc.people.com.cn/n/2012/0911/c34948-18976468.html
 Yu, K. (2012). Let flooding not be a disaster, but an opportunity: An open letter to city planners, builders and decision makers. Xin Xiang Ping Lun, (18), 38-39.
 People’s Daily. (2013, December 15). The Central Working Conference of Urbanization was held in Beijing. Communist Network. Retrieved from http://news.12371.cn/2013/12/15/ARTI1387057117696375.shtml
【英文刊名】Landscape Architecture Frontiers • Nature-Based Solutions and Urban Resilience
【作者】陈崇贤（CHEN Chongxian），夏宇（XIA Yu），杨潇豪（YANG Xiaohao）等
Resilience Strategies to Impacts of Sea Level Rise on the Agricultural Areas in Nansha District of Guangzhou
作者：陈崇贤，夏宇，杨潇豪 CHEN Chongxian, XIA Yu, YANG Xiaohao
本研究以广州市南沙区农业区域为对象，采用“源－途径－受体－影响”框架构建农业区域脆弱性评估模型，以暴露度、敏感性和适应性为基础构建评估指标体系，并基于ArcGIS平台定量化评估未来海平面上升和风暴潮对研究区域潜在的淹没风险、经济损失及其脆弱性空间分布特征。结果表明，在最低灾害风险预景和最高灾害风险预景下，南沙区农业区域淹没面积占比分别为73.38%和87.96%，经济损失分别为389 738.55万元和714 049.79万元；南沙中部地区的农业区域淹没风险较大，但北部和南部的农业区域脆弱性较高。研究进一步提出，未来可以通过防御、适应及迁移等一系列应对策略降低南沙农业区域的受灾风险和损失。
It evinces that sea level rise aggravates low-lying terrain inundation, storm surges, beach erosion, and other ecological damages. The developed agricultural system in the Pearl River Delta is at a high risk to floods; and, in light of the tactical significance of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area and its high vulnerability to sea level rise and storm surges, it urgently requires to study their impacts on the agricultural areas in this region.
Taking Nansha District, Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province, China as the study area, this study builds a vulnerability evaluation model of agricultural areas with the Source-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence framework using an indicator system upon exposure, sensibility, and adaptation, and quantitatively predicts the inundation risk level, financial loss, and vulnerability patterns of varied scenarios of sea level rise superimposed with storm surges with the ArcGIS. The main findings include 1) the stimulated proportion of inundated areas in minimum-risk and maximum-risk scenarios is 73.38% and 87.96% respectively, and the estimated financial loss in both scenarios is RMB 3,897.3855 million and 7,140.4979 million, respectively; 2) the central Nansha will suffer from a higher inundation risk, and the northern and southern agricultural parts within the study area have a higher vulnerability to flood disasters. Resilience strategies—through defense, adaptation, or relocation—for each vulnerable zone are then proposed accordingly.
Sea Level Rise; Coastal Agricultural Area; Vulnerability Evaluation; Resilience Strategy; Defense; Adaptation; Relocation
Mitigation of Urban Heat Island Effect with Small-Scale Parks—An Empirical Study on Community Parks Iin Nanjing, Jiangsu Province
作者：肖逸，戴斯竹，赵兵 XIAO Yi, DAI Sizhu, ZHAO Bing
城市化快速发展加剧了城市热岛效应，而城市绿地能够发挥重要的微气候调节功能。为探究小尺度公园的面积与形状对热岛效应的缓解作用，本文以江苏省南京市中心城区的社区公园为例，选取2019年Landsat 8-OLI遥感影像数据进行地表温度反演，借助ArcGIS 10.4识别52个社区公园，并以核建筑密度估计法对社区公园进行分类，探讨缓解城市热岛效应的最佳社区公园面积阈值和形状规律。结果表明：1）随着社区公园缓冲带距离的增加，降温强度逐渐减弱，降温范围多在0~180m；2）面积、形状、归一化植被指数是影响公园降温强度的重要因素；3）高核建筑密度的社区公园降温强度更佳，且面积阈值（0.848hm2）大于低核建筑密度的社区公园（0.384hm2）；4）社区公园形状趋于圆形或正方形时，降温效果显著。因此，在城市绿地系统规划层面，建议在高建筑密度区域合理规划小尺度的公园绿地，精细化的存量设计与管理有助于发挥城市区域的最佳生态效益，能更好地缓解局部热岛效应。
Cities have suffered from urban heat island (UHI) effect due to rapid urbanization, which can be effectively adjusted by urban green space. Taking the community parks in central area of Nanjing, Jiangsu Province as an example, this paper explored the size and shape of small-scale parks to mitigate the UHI effect. Land surface temperature was retrieved from Landsat 8-OLI remote-sensing image of 2019. The 52 studied community parks were identified with ArcGIS 10.4, and classified by kernel building density. The threshold-size and optimal shape of community parks to mitigate UHI effect were then discussed. The results showed that 1) with the increase of buffer ring distance around the community parks, the cooling intensity decreased and the cooling extent were mostly less than 180 m; 2) the area, shape, and the NDVI of the parks were important factors affecting the cooling intensity; 3) the cooling intensity of community parks under a high kernel building density was better, with a higher threshold-size (0.848 hm2) than that of the low ones (0.384 hm2); and 4) the optimal cooling intensity would occur when the park in a shape of circle or square. In conclusion, it is suggested that small green space should be planned in the areas under a high building density. Through renewal design and refined management measures in the urban green space system planning, giving full play to the ecological benefits of urban green spaces in mitigating the local UHI effect can also be expected.
Community Park; Nature-Based Solutions; Urban Heat Island Effect; Microclimate Adjustment; Empirical Study
An Adaptive Multi-Layered Ecological Landscape: The Ecological Planting of Herbaceous Communities on River Revetments in Mountainous City
作者：袁嘉，陈炼，罗嘉琪，张冠雄，游奉溢 YUAN Jia, CHEN Lian, LUO Jiaqi, ZHANG Guanxiong, YOU Fengyi
Plant communities in mountainous cities play significant roles in revetment protection, sediment interception, water purification, ecological buffer, biodiversity conservation, and landscape quality improvement. Meanwhile, the local complex hydrologic conditions may pose adversity stress to the structure, function, and ecological process of these plant communities. This paper introduces the restoration practices of river revetments in the Jiulong Waitan section of Chongqing employing ecological planting strategies. First, a technical framework was proposed for the re-establishment of riparian herbaceous communities as the multi-layered semi-natural meadows that were planted by strips and zones upon hydrologic conditions. Second, principles and modes of these ecological planting practices were elaborated. Third, an evaluation on the communities’ performance indicated that they could adapt to the complex hydrological conditions in mountainous cities, including sharp rise and fall of river level during summer floods, high temperature, and storm runoff. This study may provide a scientific reference for riverfront landscape optimization of the main stream of the Yangtze River, and a paradigm for the ecological conservation and the establishment of ecological barrier for the upper reaches.
Herbaceous Communities; River Revetment; Hydrologic Conditions; Ecological Planting; Adaptability; Mountainous Cities
Using Social Media to Explore Perceptions of Ecosystem Services by Nature-Based Solution Projects
作者：翟雪竹，埃卡特·兰格 ZHAI Xuezhu, Eckart LANGE
Natural wetlands play a vital role in maintaining regional water balance, regulating regional climate, and maintaining biodiversity. Due to urban sprawl in China, the loss of natural wetlands has been dramatic. In recent years, nature-based solutions, including wetland parks, have been advocated to compensate for this loss and to reduce vulnerability and disaster risks. As a result, inspired by natural wetlands or building on existing wetland ecosystems, hundreds of wetland parks have been created in China over the last decade. Most research on ecosystem services of wetland parks has to date focused on technical perspectives, with only a few addressing public perception; the public’s perception of wetland parks is not well understood. This research used social media (i.e. Sina Weibo) to access large volumes of data and provide temporal and geographic granularity. A semantic analysis of microblogs was performed to understand how the public perceives the ecosystem services of wetland parks in Guangzhou. This study explored the public’s perceptions and compared these with the ecosystem services as communicated by professional institutions, and probed into the factors that affect these perceptions. The results showed that the top three ecosystem services perceived by both the general public and communicated by institutions are recreation, aesthetics, and refugia / habitat. There is a strong interconnection between the perceptions of recreation and aesthetics services. Flowering plant species and colored-leaf trees are the most important stimuli affecting perceptions of aesthetics services, and birds are key to the perception of refugia / habitat services. These results provide a basis for better aligning management of projects utilizing nature-based solutions, such as wetland parks, with expectations from the public.
Nature-Based Solutions; Wetland Park; Ecosystem Services; Perception; Social Media
Keeping Promises—How to Attain the Goal of Designing Health-Supporting Urban Green Space
作者：乌尔莉卡·K·斯蒂多特，乌尔里克·西德尼斯 Ulrika K. STIGSDOTTER, Ulrik SIDENIUS
Urban green space is attributed a significant role in addressing health challenges associated with urbanization. This is supported by evidence confirming that urban green space may both promote health and well-being and support nature-based treatments. Landscape architects who design to improving health outcomes have an important task; but one which also come with responsibilities. This is also noted by the World Health Organization, which states that it is vital to understand how to design green space so that it actually delivers the intended positive health outcomes. In order to deal with this situation, various tools and design guidelines have been developed by them. However, considered from a designer’s perspective, these tools are seldom expedient enough to apply in the design process, and the guidelines are often not as generalizable as supposed.
In the current article, the authors present a process model for Evidence-Based Health Design in Landscape Architecture (EBHDL) and suggest that it may be useful as a means to deliver on stated health outcomes. The model has been developed over the last 15 years by the research group Nature, Health & Design at the University of Copenhagen. During this period, the model has been constantly enhanced via input evidence from researchers, practitioners, and university students. The EBHDL process model consists of four steps, all of which the landscape architect may be responsible for: Evidence collection, Programming, Designing, and Evaluation.
The model has been applied in the design of the University of Copenhagen’s therapy garden, Nacadia®, and health-promoting forest, Octovia®. Based on encouraging results from research projects, the first step towards a validation of the EBHDL process model have now been made. The benefits of the model include the fact that it is interdisciplinary, systematic, transparent, and dynamic. A weakness of the model is that it is time-consuming, and thereby also costly.
EBHDL Process Model; Evidence-Based Design; Health Design; Human Health; Landscape Architecture; Nature-Based Solutions
Wetland Park Design for Habitat Restoration—Case Study on The Qinghua Wetland in Baoshan, Yunnan Province
作者：张莉，张杰龙 ZHANG Li, ZHANG Jielong
Wetland park design seeks to protect and restore the wetland ecosystems of sites through scientific approaches. However, in practice, the relevant ecological principles about wetland restoration are often not effectively understood or applied by landscape designers, resulting in compromised ecological benefits after the restoration, especially in biodiversity and habitat benefits. The authors highlighted the main causal factors in wetland—flooding and fertility—and adopted wetland birds as indicator species to simplify the evaluation method. Based on years of practice, the authors summarized a hydrology-based wetland design method for habitat restoration, aiming to translate ecological principles and research findings into design guidelines that can be easily understood and applied by landscape designers to spatial design. This design method includes 7 steps, namely 1) targeted species selection and goal setting; 2) design of habitat types and spatial arrangement; 3) landform design; 4) water level design; 5) plant community building; 6) landscape design with minimal intervention; and 7) spatial design for natural succession. The article then expanded each step using an illustrative design case, the Qinghua Wetland in Baoshan, Yunnan Province.
Ecological Restoration; Wetland Restoration; Habitat Restoration; Wetland Park Design; Biodiversity; Bird Habitat; Qinghuahai National Wetland Park
Ecological or Naturalistic: A Brief Review and Several Thoughts on Contemporary Planting Design
作者：蔡哲铭 Taro Zheming CAI
Nature is a cultural construct, and a symbolic form to our cultural landscape. It plays a critical role in the profession of Landscape Architecture, shaping both the practice in the constructed environment as well as the conception of landscape in Pedagogy. This article evaluates contemporary landscape architecture practice in the U.S. through the lens of planting design and ecological design approaches. This retrospect situates selected individuals and their practices in the field of landscape architecture in the past two decades, in parallel with the evolving ecological understanding. These individuals and their works demonstrate the changes in planting design and ecological thinking in the professional practice, and most importantly how these changes contribute to current ecological design methodologies, landscape aesthetics, and public perception of landscape. In addition, the article aims to illustrate a shifting conception of Nature over time and in different cultural context, in which different conceptions of Nature facilitate various approaches to addressing environmental issues. By situating in such context, the article hopes to provide a critical view of contemporary American landscape architecture practice and the current ecological agenda, in order to enable discussions regarding the professional practice in the future.
Landscape Architecture; Planting Design; Ecological Design; Naturalistic Design; Landscape Architecture Professional Practice
The S River Park on the Living Shoreline of the Ganjiang River: A Nature-Based Solution to Ecological Restoration of Riverfront Landscape
作者：张楚晗 ZHANG Chuhan
Possessing significant ecological and landscape values, river shorelines are regarded as a region’s most important interface to resist natural disasters while they are also extremely dynamic and sensitive. Therefore, it is critical to follow the laws of nature in design and planning of river shorelines to achieve the harmonious coexistence of human and nature free of flood catastrophes.
This article takes the S River Park on the Living Shoreline of the Rule Lake New Town, Ganjiang New District, Jiangxi Province as an example of nature-based design approach: First, by examining remote sensing maps and water level data in different historical periods of the site, the design team learnt the evolving hydrological characteristics of the river; Second, the relations between the river’s evolution and major human interventions in history are clarified and sorted; Last but not the least, guided by the nature laws of water erosion and sedimentation, a nature-based design solution was approached—By catalyzing natural processes with appropriate human interventions, it aims at rehabilitating the damaged sandbar habitats through spontaneous remediation of the river, and creating fascinating riverfront experience out of a rational function zoning of the park based on various natural conditions, thus to make the new town more vibrant and resilient by connecting it with the seasonal waterfront landscape driven by the ebb and flow of the river.
Nature-Based Solution; River Evolution; Shoreline; Ecological Restoration; Habitat Rehabilitation; Urban Resilience
Forged by Floods: Wuhan Yangtze Riverfront Park
作者：迈克尔·格罗福，张韬 Michael GROVE, ZHANG Tao
The evolution of the Yangtze Riverfront Park in Wuhan, China highlights what many waterfront cities around the world are facing with respect to converging forces of urbanism, growth, resiliency, and ecological degradation. This site emphasizes why the public realm is a critical component in addressing all of these often-conflicting issues.
By re-envisioning the 16-kilometer-long riverfront landscape, Wuhan is creating a new paradigm for its parks by embracing flooding as a regular occurrence and a driving force in the shaping of its public realm. This strategy of working with Nature and not against it allows visitors to understand and appreciate the river’s complex dynamics. The proposed development of the Yangtze Riverfront Park aims to harness the power of natural processes to nurture a rich regional ecology, improve ecosystem services, and enhance public health and recreational amenities.
Informed by an extensive public engagement process and crowdsourced data, the redesign of the park reinforces Wuhan’s cultural identity by preserving decommissioned industrial infrastructure and other artifacts along the river that symbolize the city’s industrial legacy and urban history. The vision for an updated Yangtze Riverfront Park strives to create a socially inclusive, culturally relevant, and ecologically meaningful waterfront that emphasizes Wuhan’s identity of living authentically with an ever-changing river.
Waterfront; Resilience; Adaptive Reuse; Ecology; Urban Flooding; Outreach and Engagement
Designing by Radical Indigenism
作者：朱莉娅·沃森，艾弗里·罗伯森，费利克斯·德·罗森 Julia WATSON, Avery ROBERTSON, Félix DE ROSEN
Looking to Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) sites and traditional ecological knowledge-based infrastructures (Lo–TEK), we find nature-based systems that symbiotically work with the environment. This article suggests that by hybridizing Lo–TEK with high-tech systems, the GIAHS sites could offer designers a toolkit towards economically, ecologically, culturally, and technologically innovative systems that can improve productivity and resilience. Whereas urban development results in the erasure of history, identity, culture and nature, this idea explores how urbanization can be an agent for the migration and reapplication of agricultural heritage systems, rather than their greatest threat. Cities can leap-frog the typical Western model of displacing indigenous diversity for homogenous high-tech. Instead, catalyzing localized, agricultural heritage landscapes like those designated as globally important agricultural heritage systems, as scalable, productive and resilient climate change solutions and technologies. It requires a shift in the thinking about traditional agriculture and about the relationship to Nature, from superior to symbiotic.
Nature-Based Technology; GIAHS; Lo–TEK; Climate Change; Radical Indigenism
Multiperspectival Cartographies for Democratic Climate Adaptation
作者：纳欣·玛塔妮，托马斯·霍尔德内斯 Nashin MAHTANI, Tomas HOLDERNESS
Jakarta in Indonesia experiences annual fluvial, pluvial, and coastal flooding. As weather patterns become increasingly unpredictable residents regularly face extreme weather events. While the proliferation of data has been enthusiastically adopted to transform real-time response, data is meaningless without designed platforms of considered assembly. PetaBencana.id (Disaster Map Indonesia) is a free online platform that enables residents and emergency managers to map flooding in real-time. The map is used by the public, government, and business to enhance decision-making in response to flooding. Contrary to the project’s initial aim of collecting empirical information to model flood conditions, the work of mapping, cross-validating, and disseminating flood information for residents and government has become in itself a form of digital meta-infrastructure that helps mitigate the impact of flooding. Resident reports are now the de-facto ground truth for flood information, and are used to calibrate other sensor-platforms (e.g., satellite imagery). This essay reflects on how the map developed a methodology for collaboratively mapping the dynamic fluctuations of the city from multiple textural perspectives and at multiple scales, thereby diversifying the means and scope of participation in urban infrastructure and its response to extreme events.
Flood; Climate; Infrastructure; Adaptation; PetaBencana.id