济宁文化中心一期景观设计 | LDG兰斯凯普
济宁文化中心包括群艺馆、图书馆、博物馆、美术馆以及配套的商业综合体。项目从构想之初就不同凡响，建筑设计竞赛邀约了包括矶崎新（Arata Isozaki，2019普利兹克奖得主）、马里奥·博塔(Mario Botta)、西泽立卫(Nishizawa Ryue, 2010普利兹克奖得主)、何镜堂院士等世界一流大师和知名的建筑设计单位参与。这是一个难度极大的挑战，济宁文化中心集“文娱、艺术、展览、收藏、创作、商业”等多元功能为一体，各个建筑单体既需要在世界级建筑大师们的创作之下呈现“唯一性”的特色，又需要相互融合，和谐共生。景观的参与和实践正是遵循“有机缝合”这一基本原则，来塑造“整体、共情、协调”的外部公共环境，把多样化的城市文化公共建筑，通过景观环境的创新思维有机地融合为整体，共同构建了文化中心这一综合体，建筑与景观的相得益彰造就了济宁市新的文化地标和“城市名片”。
Jining Cultural Center includes a group of art exhibition halls, libraries, museums, art galleries and supporting commercial complexes. The project has been extraordinary from the beginning of its conception. The architectural design competition invited Arata Isozaki (Pritzker Prize winner in 2019), Mario Botta, and Nishizawa Ryue (Lizker Prize winner in 2020), academician He Jingtang and other world-class masters and well-known architectural design units participated. This is an extremely difficult challenge. Jining Cultural Center integrates multiple functions such as “recreation, art, exhibition, collection, creation, and commerce”. Each building unit needs to be presented under the creation of world-class architects. The characteristics of “uniqueness” need to be integrated and coexist in harmony. The participation and practice of landscape is to follow the basic principle of “organic stitching” to shape the external public environment of “integrity, empathy, and coordination”, and organically integrate diverse urban cultural public buildings through innovative thinking of landscape environment For the whole, the cultural center is constructed together, and the complementarity of architecture and landscape has created a new cultural landmark and “city name card” in Jining.
▲文化中心整体鸟瞰，overall aerial view of the cultural center ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
The project base is located in the core location of Taibai Lake New District, Jining City. It is adjacent to Taibai Lake on the west side and overlooks the Beihu Ecological Tourist Zone on the south side. The surrounding natural resources are very superior. The project land is close to Shengxian Road and Canal Road, and the urban road network transportation system in the area is developed. In terms of location, there are important municipal projects such as Jining Administration Center, Civic Park, Sports Center, Urban Exhibition Hall, Children’s Park, etc. within the 5km metropolitan area. The construction of a cultural center is undoubtedly another major measure to improve the overall level of urban public culture and the competitiveness of urban brands.
▲鸟瞰，项目紧邻太白湖，aerial view of the building close to Taibai Lake©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
▲顶视图，top view ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
Landscape and Architecture
Highland Park and Green Valley
The first phase of Jining Cultural Center contains 4 independent venues. The layout of the venues is arranged in a north-south direction. The overall style is dignified and generous, and it also shows the design concept of “harmony but different “. The exterior environment of the building is located on the east and west sides of the buildings of the venue and between the building units, which is mainly composed of highland park and green valley. Highland Park is located on the east side of the stadium building. It is a large platform with a height of 6 meters, a length of about 690 meters from north to south, and an area of 33,000 square meters. The lower part is a parking garage and supporting service buildings. It will be a single building in the first phase and a commercial building in the second phase. The groups are organically bonded together, and it can be said that the highland park is a “empathy” space between the buildings. Green Valley is located on the west side of the stadium building, close to Canal Road, and most people can enter various cultural buildings from Green Valley. The current elevation of Green Valley is about 1 meter lower than that of urban roads, and it is only “one road cross” from the Taibai Lake Ecological Scenic Area. From the location and line of sight, the west facade of the Cultural Center is an important “window” to show the image of the city.
▲高地公园鸟瞰，aerial view of the Highland Park ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
At the beginning of the landscape conception, highland parks and green valleys were given different design strategies due to differences in site characteristics, functional structure, transportation methods, and vertical heights. The main entrance of the cultural building is set on the high ground. In the future, the highland park will surely be the “living room” for visitors from cultural buildings and commercial buildings. The aggregation and flow of people requires a large-scale site design. At the same time, because the highland park depends on the basement building, the planting needs to be consistent with the building structure modulus, so the highland park is designed as an overall regular landscape. The Green Valley is different. It is not limited to architecture. It vertically protrudes the green valley feeling of the depression. It can make full use of the vertical height difference between the sidewalk on the west side and the highland park on the east side, and through the overall construction of the terrain, the free flow, change and natural style of the space are emphasized. The regular highland park provides visitors with a large number of tree-lined recreational spaces that can stay anywhere, while the green valley integrates the huge and complex vertical, traffic, entrances and exits in a layered manner through a freely organized spatial form.
▲高地公园设计比较规整，Highland Park is designed relatively regular ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
▲弧线形的绿谷，Green Valley in curved shape ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
The rational modular space of the Highland Park and the free form of Green Valley form a strong contrast. From the perspective of the design effect, both rationality and freedom are indispensable, and they are the result of the best evolution of the individual characteristics of the building and its group relationship. It is also the result of the functional requirements of the building itself. Between the highland and the green valley, that is, the transitional space between rationality and freedom, boldly “paint” the green slope, and use the infiltration of a free mass of “shuttle-shaped” slope land to blur the difference between the two, the natural landscape has become the best background for architecture, rubbing the original monotonous and blunt architectural boundaries into vivid and soft. The cultural venues not only maintain the internal structural order, but also present a harmonious and coexisting spatial relationship between highland and green valley, as well as the landscape and architecture.
▲高地公园的铺装与绿植有机融合，organic integration of modular fine paving and greening in highland parks ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
In the landscape design of the cultural center, the problem that always needs to be faced is how to treat these unique cultural buildings and how to deal with the relationship between architecture and landscape. In an essay by E.K. Meyer, he made an enlightening criticism of the ubiquitous and harmful dualistic thinking mode in landscape architecture. Meyer believes, “Landscape architecture is a mixed behavior, and the two aspects of duality cannot be simply described as opposing situations.” He believes that the dual forms of architecture and landscape, culture and nature are outdated views, and they have greatly influenced people’s interest in landscape architecture and the recognition of its importance in this century. The landscape role of the cultural center is first positioned in the recognition of the main status of the building, and secondly, it benefits from Meyer’s discussion of the “mixed behavior” of the landscape. The landscape should avoid protruding oneself, by no means use aggressive landscape elements to create a “shock” effect independent of the architecture. This “shock” is essentially a duality effect.
▲高地公园中随处可坐的“共情”空间，the “empathy” rest space where you can sit anywhere in Highland Park ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
The cultural center landscape attempts to intervene in the “soft” and vital natural landscape to resolve the “contradictions” between the base and the building, and integrate the site and the area in the area through simple landscape elements such as greening, slopes, tree arrays, and terraces. By doing this, the huge artificial building environment can be eliminated through the penetration and integration of natural elements. This kind of intervention seems a bit “plain”, but after fine detail processing, an open space is produced with a suitable scale and level. The dynamic and static function combination complements each other. The natural and artificial alternate sustainable landscape environment seems to create an ideal place for “harmonious symbiosis” of landscape and architecture with high standards.
▲充满生机的绿化景观，vibrant green landscape ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
North entrance and south entrance
Since the main city of Jining is located to the north of the cultural center base, the north entrance not only carries a large number of people, but is also a gateway to the cultural center landscape. In the landscape layout, the north entrance is set at the intersection of Yunhe Road and Shengxian Road. People can easily enter the cultural center along the Yunhe Road to the south or east from Shengxian Road. A set of “L”-shaped large steps are set up from the north entrance to the highland park. This large step can be regarded as a continuation of the north entrance to the east. The large steps up from the west can reasonably solve the problem of the north axis of the highland park. “The ending question. At the same time, the northern slope of the large steps is relatively large. The “fold-shaped” barrier-free ramp and narrow side steps, greening, and fire-fighting channels are combined, which not only enriches the traffic flow, but also satisfies the leisure function of stopping and sitting. The difference also got a reasonable transition. In order to avoid the large steps and platforms from being too “stiff”, a regular large lawn and the LOGO arc wall of the cultural center are placed in the middle and lower parts of the large steps, which greatly enhances the visual orientation and enriches the spatial experience.
▲承接大量人流的北入口广场与大台阶，the north entrance plaza and large steps that carry a large number of people ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
▲入口大台阶与弧形LOGO墙，Large steps at the north entrance and curved LOGO wall ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
▲弧形LOGO墙细部，detail of the curved LOGO wall ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
The south entrance is an important node connecting the Highland Park with the South Art Museum and Sculpture Park. It is mainly composed of large steps, landscape pedestrian bridges, and fire ramps. Visitors can easily enter the art gallery or sculpture park from the highland park through the steps, or slowly enter from the landscape pedestrian bridge. The pedestrian bridge is higher than the ground, which is the best way to enjoy the beautiful scenery of the sculpture park and the lotus-shaped roof of the museum “Viewing platform”.
▲连接博物馆的南入口处高地公园，Highland Park connecting to the museum at the south entrance ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
Bottom axis on the platform
Due to the large area of the Highland Park, the east and west wings of the commercial buildings and cultural venues are arranged side by side. These buildings have main or multiple entrances and exits on the highlands. Therefore, the Highland Park is a living room where people flow like weaving. From the perspective of traffic accessibility and architectural functions, the landscape has a central axis of 11.2 meters wide along the north-south direction, and perpendicular to the central axis is a row-like green belt with uniform planting modules. The central axis of the dominant direction connects the main entrance plaza in front of each building in series, and the vertical row of green belts can penetrate the flow of people to the corners of the high ground, which not only reasonably solves the problem of the flow of people, but also takes into account The setting of fire escape and fire climbing surface. On both sides of the central axis are planted double rows of tree-shaded paulownia, combined with the beech tree array on both sides, the axis is more “ritual”. The central axis of etiquette, the entrance square that highlights the building, and the rainwater gardens in groups. The space divisions on these high grounds are very clear and rational, but the functions and forms are rich and compact, and at the same time “open” squares. The rainwater garden with ” plentiful” also naturally formed a spatial sequence of “opening and closing” of the highland landscape.
▲连接不同场馆的景观轴线，landscape axis connecting different pavilions ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
The Canal Road on the west side of the site is the main road to the north-south city. Along this main road, you can show the imposing stadium buildings and landscape environment like a rainbow. The landscape design noticed that the sidewalk set by the general standard can only solve a single pedestrian traffic function, and cannot provide a place for citizens to stop and watch the “picture scroll”. Therefore, the sidewalk of the Canal Road is extended to the edge of the Green Valley, which is dominated by an open and transparent hard landscape, which opens up a broad view of the west side of the cultural center from along the Canal Road. At the same time, the “edge” of the sidewalk uses streamlined steps and vertical design to further express the characteristics of the depression of the Green Valley.
▲人行道边缘流线型的台阶设计表现洼地特征，curved steps on the edge of the pedestrian enhancing the characteristics of the green valley ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
▲人行道边供人休息的硬质座椅，seatings at the sides of the pedestrian for people to rest ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
Venue entrance and traffic
The venue buildings of Jining Cultural Center have primary and secondary entrances, as well as multi-purpose and multi-vertical branch entrances, which are common features of public buildings. The landscape not only focuses on coordinating the connection processing of the various entrances of the building, but also focuses on the development of tourist activities. Therefore, large squares or venues are arranged at the main entrances and exits to evacuate the flow of large crowds, and appropriate landscaping is used to create a vibrant multifunctional urban “front court” space. The small entrance focuses on the sense of belonging of the space, providing a quiet, casual and comfortable “backcourt” atmosphere. Pedestrians and vehicles are separated in the base. The ground is mainly pedestrian traffic. All vehicles enter the parking garage through the entrance of the north-south carriageway of the Highland Park. Visitors can enter the venue directly from the parking garage, or enter the high ground and green valley through the sunken garden or courtyard.
▲场地内人车分流，the pedestrian and vehicle are separated in the site ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
A small number of outdoor motor vehicle parking lots are set up along Shengxian Road and Canal Road, as well as taxi waiting areas and bicycle parking areas. There is no standard motor vehicle lane in the base. In order to meet the needs of building fire protection and management, non-standard roadway design is carried out in the landscape. Through free-form organization, the requirements of the roadway and fire climbing surface are ingeniously interpreted in the park road. , Squares, and hard grounds, eventually forming an integrated landscape effect. At the same time, with the help of a non-standard lane system, Green Valley has opened up a VIP vehicle flow line, which can quickly reach the main entrance of each stadium building from the Canal Road, and is flexibly equipped with VIP temporary parking spaces at the entrance.
▲消防坡道，fire fighting slope ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
This project responds to the requirements of the national sponge city construction, combined with factors such as rainfall and landscape conditions in Jining City, through rainwater gardens, natural slopes, sinking green spaces, flexible permeable asphalt, ecological tree ponds, planting ditch and other sponge city engineering types Measures to infiltrate, collect (including diversion), filter, store, and release (use) rainwater to build a sponge city-low-impact development rainwater system. Through natural and artificial methods, the design principle is to control the annual precipitation (over 75%) in the site as far as possible.
▲绿谷图书馆主入口处的水池，pool at the main entrance of the Green Valley Library ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
There is a vertical height difference of 6 meters between the Highland Park and the Green Valley. The natural slope formed by this height difference is the best place for rainwater and surface runoff to infiltrate the soil. The large area of permeable ecological natural slope will improve the landscape, ecology and environmental protection. Perfectly combined. Natural slopes are mainly distributed in the “gap” between the north and the south of the stadium building. On the one hand, the independent stadiums are separated and a natural “buffer” is established for the stadiums; The landscape and city picture of “Qingshan Guo oblique”. Most of the sloping terrain adopts natural sloping of mounds, and invisible grasses are used to stabilize the slopes at the steeper parts of individual slopes. Due to the large volume of the soil slope, a local cavity structure and layered soil compaction technology are used in the foundation part of the soil mound. The cavity structure is arranged close to the building boundary of the stadium, and the internal space is large. It can not only reuse the space, but also put in the aesthetic-affecting supporting management rooms and equipment rooms (such as water treatment, ground source heat pump), etc. The influence of the lateral thrust of the covering soil load on the building structure of the stadium.
▲自然坡地局部鸟瞰，aerial view of partial of the natural slopes ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
▲自然坡地在场馆之间建立缓冲区，natural slopes creating buffer area between pavilions ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
▲自然坡地上的望湖台，Wanghu terrace on the slope ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
The highland park has a landscape area of 33,000 square meters, and there are five rainwater gardens (about 16,300 square meters) for collecting rainwater from the square, site, and roof. Yuhong Garden has fully implemented the six-character policy of “seepage, retention, storage, purification, use, and drainage” of the sponge city through the technical means of ecological engineering.
▲雨洪公园，rainwater gardens ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
The expansive highland park has carried out a full range of rainwater drainage zoning. A large area of the site is placed through multiple vertical slopes, and invisible drainage ditches at the bottom of the longitudinal slope are used to direct surface rainwater into the rainwater garden. The rainwater garden is used as a rainwater retention and infiltration zone. The soil structure is equipped with a filtering and conserving sand and gravel layer and upper and lower double blind pipes. The upper blind pipe is used to release the collected surface water in the soil, and the lower blind pipe is used to collect the sand filter layer. Excess rainwater after filtering. At the same time, 8 underground water storage modules (which can store 417 cubic meters of water) are set up in the rainwater garden to store the excess rainwater filtered by the rainwater garden for later green watering.
▲雨洪花园局部，part of the rainwater garden ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
To ensure the good growth of vegetation. The entire Yuhong Garden building structure drops 1.5 to 2 meters in order to meet the requirements of the thickness of soil covering for large trees. In order to ensure the good water permeability of the Yuhong Garden, the ground surface structural slabs in the Yuhong Garden area are uniformly dropped on the building structural beams of minus 2 meters through the columns with a modular spacing of 2.8 meters. In this way, the soil in the rainwater garden is connected, which not only facilitates the growth of plant roots, but also enables the rainwater garden to ensure the practicability of urban sponges through integrity. In order to ensure the water permeability of the hard pavement of the rainwater garden, the structural panel has 5 cm longitudinal seams according to the paving modulus, and 1 cm longitudinal seams corresponding to the stone pavement, which further solves the problem of rainwater seepage on the hard ground.
▲雨洪公园中茂盛的植物，lush plants in the rainwater garden ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
Ecological planting ditch
As a depression, Green Valley is the lowest place in the cultural center. The pavement of the site is all made of flexible permeable asphalt. The undulating overall shape of the road is more conducive to drainage and water seepage. At the same time, a 600-meter-long, 2-meter-wide, and 0.5-meter-deep grass ditch was arranged at the lowest depression to collect rainwater from the entire green valley. The planting ditch can store 600 cubic meters of water. After the rainwater in the ditch is saturated, it can be discharged into the municipal rainwater pipe network system through the overflow well to achieve the purpose of “slow discharge and slow release”. Zhicaogou is planted with diverse wet plants, which enriches the landscape level and effect.
▲绿谷低处设置生态植草沟汇集雨水，ecological planting ditch at the lower side of the green valley collecting rainwater ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
Ecological tree pond
The ecological tree pond is a facility that transforms the filler of the traditional tree pond so that it can store rainwater and remove pollutants. The tree ponds of this project adopt ecological greening planting tree ponds to encourage rainwater infiltration and correspondingly reduce investment costs.
▲生态树池，ecological tree pond ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
Water for landscape using
The greening of this project adopts a watering system that combines automatic sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation to reduce manual maintenance and water consumption, and the water source uses collected rainwater (when rainwater is insufficient, the urban reclaimed water system can be switched). As the landscape waterscape requires high water quality, a water treatment room is set up in the slope underground cavity structure, and equipment is used for physical treatment. In this way, not only water quality can be guaranteed, but water resources can also be reused.
▲景观水池和河道，landscape pools and rivers ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
▲水景细部，closer view of the waterscape ©LDG/熊世宝、肖滔、何深华
On the basis of a profound interpretation of the planning structure and architectural characteristics, the landscape of Jining Cultural Center Phase I implemented the landscape modeling of distinctive highland parks and green valleys, and through the overall vertical design, the building was completely reconstructed. Local relations. At the same time, the concept of sponge city is used to integrate ecological engineering technology into the landscape design, so that the project will not only take into account the diversity of the landscape itself such as spatial structure, transportation system, environmental atmosphere, and ecological sustainability, but also in the landscape and these “uniqueness”. The space fusion between the world-class buildings in China has achieved an overall relationship of “harmonious symbiosis, organically stitching”.
▲总平面图，master plan ©LDG
项目设计 & 完成年份：2015年08月–2019年5月