深圳南头古城活化与利用项目二期景观设计 | 奥雅设计
图片来源：ACF域图视觉 林涛 韦立伟 上官静煊
Nantou Ancient City (hereafter as: Nantou) is located in Nanshan District,Shenzhen. With a history of nearly 1700 years, it has witnessed the renewal anddevelopment of the historical city center in Shenzhen. Nantou is now aquickly developing urban village within the rapid urbanization and continuousimmigrations, but it has a complicated out-of–date urban spacestructure. As an ancient historical site, it used to be the "first countyin eastern Guangdong". It is really a valuable relic of local culturalhistory. In the 1950s, Nantou, as the seat of local government, was the corearea in Shenzhen.
Through the rapid development recent decades, this urbanvillage has been favored and unreasonably developed by the booming commercialhousing market and increasing house rental demand for its lowest living costand most friendly human-oriented living ambience. However, it was a greatchallenge to renovate this ancient urban village for its complicated populationand spatial structure, outdated infrastructure, difficulties of cultural relicprotection, and lack of public space.
The aboriginal population is about 30,000 in Nantou, of which 90% arelow-income migrants. Compared with surrounding high-rise housing blocks, Nantouis absolutely an irreplaceable shelter for low-income migrants with its over60% cheaper house rental. Moreover, this ancient site is filled with differentarchitectural styles with inclusive space layout. Both the architectures andlifestyles here are needed to be respect whether from historical factors orurban development.
The project design well connects different areas fromdifferent viewing angles in a systematic way to build a diversified andinclusive community space by culture display, historic-axis connection andarchitecture revitalization. An activation mode was introduced to designcultural space, scientific innovation space and cultural innovation space, soas to achieve the active interaction between aborigines and immigrants, makers,tourists and other groups. Some tender feeling is spreading in this urban village when people are enjoying themselves in thesesocial spaces integrated with local ancient features. It establishes a model ofurban renewal to obtain the variety for existed monotonous structures of spaceand population here, and to enhance local cultural attraction, further to buildan inclusive livable community with vitality and diversity.
Considering the complicated population structure and spatial system inNantou, its main street was renovated segment by segment and stage by stagewith clear classifications. The boundary between public and private spaces wasdivided by the steps in front of the shops on the street. The shop facades werestrategically renovated according to the classified "with vacantland", "without vacant land", "only with steps", and"with shared front space". The existed step space in front of eachshop was renovated as series seating areas for the passersby, and decoratedwith unified flower boxes to create a resilient streetscape full of vibrancy.
The design of public areas was based on the grading of the main street and itslanes. Two paving materials with separate unified styles were selected for thestreet and lanes, so as to visually achieve clear spatial division. Inaddition, the historic buildings withdistinctive local features were well preserved and decorated byenergetic plants in a considerate way, also the flexibly functional space foractivities was reserved.
Nantou is not only a densely populated urban village with complicated spacesystem, but also an ancient cultural site with a long history. In order tobetter preserve and keep on local cultural vitality, the projectdesign used the remaining materials of ancient buildings which had ahundred years such as Baode Temple building stuff. The ancient city entrancewhich is close to Zhongshan Park was designed to recycle these primordialmaterials. By combing with modern materials such astransparent concrete, a new natural and historical entrance landscape wall wasdexterously formed.
Based on local Ling-nan Cantonese architectural style,the main street and its lanes are mainly paved by recycled local stones aswell. Modern and historical materials and design elements are reasonablyapplied on this ancient site as if a dialogue on culture were being vividlyperformed through time and space.
Infrastructure improvement is another key issue in this project. Actually,the main street was a north-south ramp with manhole covers of varying heightsand disordered wires and pipes. The renovated seating areas in front of theshops are also functioned to balance the height difference between the mainstreet and the entrances of buildings along the street, meanwhile, to hide theexisted disordered wires and pipes, creating a pleasant streetscape forvisitors and passersby. Classified trash cans and box-type outdoor firehydrants are reasonably set on the street.
Horizontal linear interceptorditches are installed with ancient-style metal drainage outlets to solve thedrainage problem on the whole site. The plant palette is designed with plantingpots and beds according to the thickness of soil cover by the site heightdifference. These designing measures not only meet the residents’ needs ofcontemporary daily life, but also greatly improve the quality of spaceenvironment on the whole site.
Through the investigation on local residents’ behavior patterns andlifestyles, designers found there were limited public spaces to meet theireveryday needs here. Whereupon, in addition to the reconstruction of mainstreet and the reparative protection of historic monuments, the existed important public open spaces were allrenovated in a sustainable way with low interventions, such as SouthSquareEast Gatehouse, Guanye Temple, Baode Temple, etc.. Moreover, greeninfrastructure is pleasantly set on these public spaces to create a comfortableand cozy greenbelt for residents, endowing the ancient site with full ofvitality.
In detail, the existing redundant shrubs on South Square are removedto build an open green space, and the large banyan and scattered stones arepreserved to keep an ambience of reminiscence. Traditional scenes of everydaylife, such as enjoying opera-and-tea time, dragon-lion dancing performance andtrading fairs, all return here for local residents by the renovation of publicspaces.
The renovated spaces also provide diverse platforms for variousactivities like exhibitions, artistic performances and creativity fairs. As aresult, the renovation provides Nantou and her residents with ample space fordiverse activities, and return local original life style to residents.
The project laid emphasis on the maintenance of historical sites and therenovation of this urban village, introducing various design elements for localactivities such as traditional handicrafts, food, folk customs, creativityfairs, museum groups and themed exhibitions. As the birthplace of local culturein Shenzhen, Nantou becomes a landmark for people to appreciate and cherish itshistorical and cultural heritage. Through the renovations, it has successfullytransformed from a low-end urban village into an urban symbiotic ecosystem withintegrated cultural creativity, residence and commerce. Local residents stillkeep their original normal lifestyle, but they could now enjoydiverseactivities in the more spacious public spaces.
Meanwhile, the renewed NantouAncient City provides not only an ideal cultural and creative activity platformfor newcomers, but also a high-quality livable space with low rent forlow-income groups surviving in the metropolis with increasingly expensive landprices. Nevertheless, the renewal of urban villages is a complex and continuousprocess, while this project is just a beginning. In the future, Nantou willexplore a sustainable development mode itself in the complex modern citybackground, to lead the coordinated development with surrounding areas, with aview to providing feasible solutions for the urban-village renewal of othercities around the world.
设计团队：奥雅深圳公司项目三组、植物组 / 奥雅深圳公司公建三组
集群设计其他单位：MVRDV/Tao迹/大域/ 都市实践/ 反正 /坊城 /非常建筑/华汇/集合设计/厘米制造/
南沙原创/ 南粤古建/如恩/Plus 8/ 竖梁社/武重义/一十一/营加/众建筑 /梓集/（排名不分先后）
摄影师：ACF域图视觉 林涛 韦立伟 上官静煊