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华盛顿潮汐湖重塑计划启动,俞孔坚“基于自然的途径”受关注

景观中国 2020-12-30 来源:景观中国网
原创
美国GreenSoap环境简报发表文章,建议华盛顿杰弗逊纪念堂及其潮汐湖的重建计划中,应考虑俞孔坚博士提出的基于自然的途径。

The Tidal Basin at Its Lowest Tide

低潮时期的潮汐湖

Nature Based Solutions: An Ode to Yu

基于自然的途径:向俞孔坚博士致敬


文章翻译自:Francis McGuigan from greensoap 

                    https://greensoap.substack.com/

华盛顿潮汐湖重塑计划启动,俞孔坚“基于自然的途径”受关注

▲樱花节期间的潮汐湖与杰弗逊纪念堂

S: We leave a mark on places and those places leave a mark on us.

Of the grand and moving places in Washington, the Tidal Basin, more nature than monument, was always the place for me. I remember:

我们在环境中留下印记的同时,环境也给我们留下了难以忘怀的回忆。在华盛顿有着一个圣洁美丽的潮汐湖,她比纪念碑更加亲近自然,是我心之神往的地方。我还记得:

the first warm spring day in 1978, skipping high school classes for the day with a foreign exchange student, and meeting President Jimmy Carter on the banks of the Tidal Basin;a moonlit evening near midnight during medical school in 1984, parked in my old mustard-yellow postal jeep on the seawall with a girlfriend, who just returned for a few days from her work on a presidential campaign trail, looking across at the Jefferson Memorial and listening to Springsteen on the radio (won’t talk about the Cop);and one of numerous picnics during the annual Cherry Blossom Festival sitting under the trees with my three small children, Shannon, Kieran and Anlon, and Teresa our Polish nanny, everyone bundled in blankets while petals of cherry blossoms swirled like pink snow and the setting sun painted the sky in shades of orange and red over the Potomac.

1978年春天的第一天,温暖和煦,我和一个国际交流学生逃课来潮汐湖岸边与吉米卡特总统“相见”;1984年,我还是医学院的学生,我带着刚从总统竞选工作抽出身来的女朋友,在一个接近午夜的时刻将老式芥末黄postal吉普车停在了海塘,我们一边听着收音机里斯普林斯汀的歌手,一边远远眺望杰弗逊纪念堂;我还记得在一年一度的樱花节,落日余晖将波托马克河上方的天空染成了橙红色,我与我的三个孩子,香农、基兰、安龙还有波兰保姆特蕾莎一同坐在树下,裹在自己的毯子中,沉浸在樱花花瓣如粉色雪花般片片落下的世界里。

The Tidal Basin left her mark on me.

Now, that beautiful body creates a very different impression; in part, because of the mark we left on her. Her infrastructure is crumbling. Flood waters, no longer controlled, overflow her banks at high tide and storms, leaving muck, debris and strangled cherry trees. Concrete barriers hastily installed after 9/11, still surround the Jefferson Memorial like blocks arranged in a half circle by a toddler. During the annual Cherry Blossom Festival, millions of tourists and Washingtonians unintentionally overload her with love marring her natural beauty.

Built by the Army Corps of Engineers to control flooding in the late 1800’s, the Tidal Basin was part a solution. The solution tried to control nature. Now, nature is making the solution a problem.

潮汐湖在我记忆中留下了深深的的烙印。

然而,这美丽的地方变得有些不同,或许是因为我们在她身上留下了太多的痕迹。她的基础设施在濒临坍塌,于是洪水开始不受控制。一次又一次的潮水和风暴来势凶猛,没过海岸,最终留下随处可见的淤泥、残骸和生机不再的樱花树。9/11事件后,杰弗逊纪念堂四周匆匆忙忙地围起了混凝土护栏,就好像刚学会走路的孩子用积木围了半个圈。一年一度的樱花节上,数百万的游客和当地居民无意间倾注了太多对这天然美物的热爱。

19世纪末,陆军工团建造了潮汐盆地来控制洪水,然而现在在大自然的影响下,它成了一个更大的问题。

华盛顿潮汐湖重塑计划启动,俞孔坚“基于自然的途径”受关注

杰弗逊纪念堂西侧潮汐湖的低潮期。左图:杰弗逊纪念堂;右上图:飘零的樱花;右下图:混凝土护栏

O: In 1912, three thousand cherry blossom trees, a gift of the Mayor of Tokyo, were planted under the guidance of first lady Helen Taft on the banks of what was then called Twining lake.

The present day Tidal Basin seawall and bridge were constructed in the 1940’s by the Iowa engineering firm of Alexander and Repass using an integrated workforce, an unusual situation in Washington at the time.

1912年,东京市长送了美国三千棵樱桃树作为礼物,在第一夫人海伦·塔夫特的带领下,它们被种在了后来被称作交织湖的岸上。

20世纪40年代,亚历山大和瑞帕斯的爱荷华工程公司建成了如今的潮汐海塘和大桥,公司当时同时雇用了白人黑人来完成这个项目,这在当时的华盛顿是非常罕见的。

The Jefferson Memorial was dedicated in 1943. The FDR Memorial opened in 1997. The Martin Luther King Memorial graced the banks of the basin in 2011. The Tidal Basin, part of the National Mall complex is under the direction of the National Park Service. The National Mall and its monuments are the crown jewel of the national parks with 29 million visitors annually.

The Tidal Basin and its monuments sit in a floodplain. Fill obtained from dredging the Washington Channel form its southern and western borders. Just like oceans, the Tidal Basin and the Potomac river experience high and low tides.

杰弗逊纪念堂于1943年竣工,罗斯福纪念碑在1997年对外开放,2011年马丁·路德·金纪念碑的建立更是为这片土地添光加彩。潮汐湖作为华盛顿国家广场的一部分,受国家公园管理局管辖。国家广场和纪念碑是国家公园王冠上的明珠,每年吸引来约莫两千九百万游客。

潮汐湖和纪念碑建立在滩地上,疏通华盛顿海峡产出的淤泥形成了南海岸线和西海岸线。像大海一样,潮汐湖和巴托马克河每天要面对潮涨潮落。

华盛顿潮汐湖重塑计划启动,俞孔坚“基于自然的途径”受关注

According to the National Climate Assessment, climate change in this region will generate higher levels of precipitation, more frequent and severe flooding, and a sea level rise of between 4.5 to 11 feet by the end of the century. The land itself is subsiding. During high tide and the swell from storms, water from the Potomac River submerges the walkway just west of the Jefferson Memorial. When the water subsides, it leaves silt and waste behind. Cherry trees in this area have already withered and died. Nature is re-exerting its supremacy.

根据国际气象监测局,这片区域气候的变化会带来更多的降水,更频繁严重的洪水冲击,本世纪末海平面预计会上升4.5到11英尺。这片土壤在下沉,在涨潮时,暴风雨引起浪涌时,巴托马克河里的水会淹没杰弗逊纪念堂西边的人行道。河水退去后,留下的是满眼的淤泥和垃圾,这里的樱花树早已枯萎死亡。大自然似乎重新夺回了她的主控权。

Dr. Kongjian Yu, a Harvard trained architect, specializes in handling flooding problems in Chinese cities with nature based solutions. He believes in working with nature, not overcoming her with concrete. His concepts manifest in reality through hundreds of projects in cities throughout the world. He is redefining the space where land and water meet:

俞孔坚博士是毕业于哈佛的建筑师,他擅长用基于自然的途径处理中国城市的洪涝问题。他坚信要利用生态修复而不是钢筋混凝土解决问题。他的理念在全世界百个城市项目中得到实践,他重新定义了滨水空间应该是怎样的:

This October, the Trust for the National Mall and the National Trust for the Historic Preservation released the design concepts to the public for reinventing the Tidal Basin and its surrounding monuments. The Tidal Basin Ideas Lab contains the visions of five architectural firms for the future of the 107 acre site. It is worth taking some time to review the different interpretive, ecologic and creative processes behind each firm’s proposal(s). The estimated cost of the preservation is $500 million dollars, part of $11.6 Billion in deferred maintenance plans for the entire National Park System. In July, Congress passed H.R. 1957, the Great Outdoors Act that provides $1.9 billion a year for five years for deferred park maintenance. It is not enough.

今年10月,华盛顿国家广场信托基金会和国家历史保护信托基金会向公众发布了重塑潮汐湖及其周围纪念碑的设计理念。由五家建筑公司组成的潮汐湖创意小组展开了对107英亩土地的未来展望,每个公司提案背后不同的理解、生态和创新方面的理念还是值得去花时间细细了解下。预计从整个国家公园系统的延期维护费用116亿美元中拨出了大约5亿美元的维护费用进行本次修建。并且在7月份,国会通过了1957年H.R.法案,该大户外法案规定五年内每年需要提供19亿美元用于公园的延期维护。然而这些还远远不够。


原文链接:https://greensoap.substack.com/p/the-tidal-basin-at-its-lowest-tide?token=eyJ1c2VyX2lkIjo0MTgxMSwicG9zdF9pZCI6MjU0NjUzNjksIl8iOiJ3aGVWTyI%E2%80%A6


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