美国费城Dilworth公园景观设计 | OLIN
“Philadelphia’s reinvention of Dilworth Park elevates and untangles a 1960s-era sunken hardscape into a more usable, sustainable, and equitable public space— appropriate as the democratic front porch of City Hall—that links three major transit networks into a single, multilayered node. Spanning four acres, yet wrapped on three sides by busy thoroughfares, the park succeeds in offering workday respite for downtown commuters as well as a central gathering and recreation space for weekend visitors. On-site rainwater collection irrigates refreshed park boundary greenery and serves a programmed seasonal fountain that becomes a public ice rink in winter. Unpretentious glass entry pavilions offer access and daylight to the complex transit hub beneath the street-level park and mark the entry to a city center its people are proud tore-occupy.”
– 2020 Awards Jury
Dilworth Park at Philadelphia’s City Hall is a lively and contemporary embodiment of William Penn’s vision for Philadelphia as a ‘Green Country Town.’ Today the park is an inclusive hub of Philadelphia’s life outdoors but for decades this was not the case. Prior to renovation Dilworth was an uninviting and inaccessible maze of raised and sunken terraces, hidden passageways, and defunct fountains surrounded by gloomy malnourished trees. The opportunity for change raised the park, both physically and metaphorically, to the prominence of its location at the foot of Philadelphia’s City Hall. The new park provides universal accessibility by bringing the entire site to street level, and encourages use throughout the day with a variety of programming. The entire park, with its generous lawn, interactive fountain, café, and ample seating amidst green groves of native plantings, are all built atop the nexus of Philadelphia’s multi-modal transit system and acts as a connective gateway to all of Philly’s neighborhoods. The park functions as a 2.5-acre green roof, creating a welcome all-season spot for relaxation and public recreation.
▲Dilworth公园：在将整个场地恢复至街道层之后，设计团队在其中置入了公交通道、咖啡厅、草坪和一个动态喷泉。植物界定出活动场地，同时有助于降低来自街道的噪音。Dilworth Park: After restoring the site to street level, the team incorporated new transit gateways, a café, a lawn, and a flexible plaza with a dynamic scrim fountain into the park. Plantings frame the activity and help buffer street noise. ©James Ewing / OTTO
The redesign of Dilworth Park was conceived as a strategic initiative to improve the civic life and pedestrian environment of downtown Philadelphia. Despite its 2.5-acre size and prominent location at the foot of City Hall and atop the nexus of Philadelphia’s public transit system, the plaza was one that many Philadelphians avoided. Built in the 1970s, the plaza and transit concourse below formed a maze of numerous stairs, lacked ramps or elevators, and was subdivided in ways that prevented clear sitelines to the street or the transit corridor below. Additionally, the space had suffered from years of deferred maintenance leading to decreased transit use, crumbling site furnishings, graffiti, non-functioning fountains, and an uneven canopy of overgrown and diseased trees.
▲场地平面图：公园曾经是一个由众多楼梯、隔墙以及长满杂草的下沉庭院构成的“迷宫”。在经过改造之后，这里如今成为了一个统一且畅行无阻的公园，在费城市政厅的前方形成一道欢迎的“前廊”。Site Plan: Once a disorienting and inaccessible maze of stairs, walls, overgrown vegetation and sunken coutyards, Dilworth Park is now a unified, wholly accessible public park—a welcoming “front porch” to Philadelphia’s City Hall. ©OLIN
The urgency to revitalize the long-neglected plaza was clear. The site not only needed to be a safe and accessible hub for 70,000 daily transit users, but its location meant that it also had the potential to be reinvented as a vibrant and vital civic space, the true heart of the city. William Penn envisioned this when he originally planned Philadelphia with five main public squares distributed throughout the city. This site, known then as Centre Square, served as the location for the city’s innovative steam-driven waterworks and first public fountain. The vision for the revitalized plaza, now fittingly rebranded as Dilworth Park, emerged at the confluence of these needs and ideals: a celebration of the civic enterprise, life, movement, and evolution of the city as a welcoming place for all.
▲费城的中央广场：Dilworth公园的改造为城市带来了不可磨灭的影响，同时又与既有的城市结构和谐相融，就像是费城自始以来的一部分。Philadelphia’s Centre Square: The transformation of Dilworth Park has left an indelible impact on the city, and at once feels like it has always been a part of the urban fabric—a place that is undeniably Philadelphian. ©OLIN / Sahar Coston-Hardy
作为费城最重要的市民空间之一，未来新公园空间的建造需要听取来自市民、公民组织、市政府和州政府机构的各方意见。项目愿景的重点是创造一个通达而民主的空间，使其既能够与费城市政厅的历史特征相适应，又不至于与其形成竞争的关系。此外，新公园也需要足够的财政支持以保证全年的运作和稳定的维护，这为经历过2008年经济大衰退的费城提出了更大的挑战。最终，费城的商业区协进会（Business Improvement Districts）之一被选为重建工作的领导者。项目方首先与市政府签订了长期租赁管理协议，以确定资金来源并协调跨部门会议和审批之间的复杂关系。多方协作和综合的设计过程是该项目获得成功的关键。由客户组建的项目团队包含了景观设计师、建筑师、喷泉和照明设计师、结构、机械和土木工程师以及一位国际知名的艺术家，旨在共同达成重建公园的宏大愿景。合作的过程并不局限于来自顾问团队的专业知识；广泛的公众参与对整体设计起到了根本性的作用：在项目进行的6年时间里，一共举办了近60次公共参与会议。一个标志性的事件是，项目团队在市政厅举办了一次公共展览，聚焦于场地历史及其在费城社会和经济发展历程中的地位。
As one of the most significant civic spaces in Philadelphia, the public, civic organizations, and city and state agencies needed a voice in the future of the new park space. The vision that arose focused on the need to create an accessible, democratic space that could live up to the historic character of Philadelphia City Hall without competing with it. The new park would also require financial support to provide activities and robust maintenance throughout the year. This was made more challenging as Philadelphia endured the Great Recession of 2008. Ultimately, one of the city’s Business Improvement Districts was selected to lead the redevelopment. The project began by developing a long-term lease management agreement with the city, identifying funding sources, and coordinating a complex web of interagency meetings and approvals. Collaboration and an integrated design process was essential for the success of this project. The client assembled a team of landscape architects, architects, fountain and lighting designers, structural, civil, and mechanical engineers, and even an internationally acclaimed artist to realize the public ambitions of the park. The collaboration process was not limited to the expertise of consultants; an extensive public engagement process helped to fundamentally shape the design, with nearly 60 public engagement meetings held over the project’s six-year duration. A hallmark of this effort was a public exhibition at City Hall designed by the team, which followed the history of the site and its place in the history of Philadelphia’s social and economic life.
▲聚会场所：公园在尺度和功能上实现了巧妙的平衡，创造出舒适的、能够同时适应于大型聚会和个人及小型活动的场地。A Meeting Place: The park deftly balances scale and function, creating comfortable areas not just for large gatherings but also for individuals and small groups. ©OLIN / Sahar Coston-Hardy
The design of Dilworth Park is deceptively simple, but it is shaped by the difficulties of understanding human needs and scale for physical comfort, secure surroundings and the design of flexible space that does not lose its charm when hosting a crowd or during quite moments when only occupied by a few. The new park needed to be vibrant and flexible without competing with the sculpted façade of City Hall. The technical engineering was another considerable feat, given that the park that is the ‘roof’ of the transit system below. In many places the requirements for the fountain, paving, and planting needed to be sandwiched within a structural slab depth of a mere three feet or less.
▲多层次的设计：公园的设计非常简单，但其下方却隐藏着一个非常复杂的基础交通网络。设计结合了多个新的入口，创造出更加安全和方便的通行体验。A Design with Layers: The park’s design is deceptively simple, yet an intricate network of transit infrastructure sits just below the site. The design incorporates multiple new access points, creating a safer and more accessible transit experience. ©James Ewing / OTTO
The design is intentionally horizontal, with the exception of the pair of gracious arcing pavilions that descend to the transit concourse below and draw natural light and air to the bustling transit concourse. Along the edges, groves of trees and raised planting beds wrap the park, separating it from the surrounding traffic and providing shade and sanctuary from the bustling city streets. The form and location of these planted retreats help to navigate the gently sloping grade change between the street and park, while providing a welcoming entry and ample, comfortable seating integrated along the edges.
▲属于所有人的空间：广场既有的下沉区域被提升至街道层，并拆除了周边的障碍物。设计营造了100%畅行无阻的空间，为公园及其周围的游客提供了便利的交通。A Welcoming Space for All: By raising the plaza’s formerly sunken areas to street level and removing barriers at the perimeter, the design is 100% ADA accessible, improving circulation for all visitors to the park and the surrounding urban fabric. ©OLIN / Sahar Coston-Hardy
▲公共交通的显著改善：新建的玻璃凉亭和四部电梯为在公园附近（10分钟步行距离）工作的近15万名专业人士提供了边界的通勤路径。A Celebration of Public Transit: The addition of transparent glass pavilions and four elevators provide an effortless commute for the nearly 150,000 professionals that work within a ten-minute walk of the park. ©OLIN / Sahar Coston-Hardy
After restoring the entire site to street level, the design team incorporated a variety of spaces: transit gateways, a café, a lawn, and a flexible plaza animated by a dynamic scrim fountain. Elegant plantings of trees and shrubs frame the activity and help buffer street noise. To foster year-round interest, the team selected plantings reflective of the native plant communities of the Mid-Atlantic ecoregion: sweetspire and viburnums with their early blooms in April and May, summer blooms of mountain laurel and false spirea, and autumnal golds and reds of locust and maple trees, oakleaf hydrangeas, and red twig dogwood stems. During winter the panicum and purple love grass hold their structure in dormancy. To reduce runoff and meet Philadelphia’s stringent green infrastructure requirements, rainwater is captured and diverted to a stormwater catchment and filtration system integrated throughout the park. Along with the planted areas, the stormwater system of the park has reduced the amount of impervious surface area by 38%.
▲费城市区里的绿洲：公园的边缘遍布着茂盛的本地植物和适生物种，在迎接游客的同时带来四季皆宜的风景。An Oasis in Downtown Philly: Lush plantings of native and adaptive species greet visitors at every edge of the park, providing seasonal interest year-round. ©OLIN / Sahar Coston-Hardy
▲可持续性：在增加了近半英亩的绿化带和三分之一英亩的透水铺装之后，Dilworth 公园现在的透水率超过了50%。雨水将通过地下蓄水池得到收集、过滤和再利用。Sustainability in Mind: With the addition of nearly half an acre of green space and a third of an acre of permeable paving, Dilworth Park is now over 50% pervious, allowing for stormwater to be collected, filtered, and re-used via a cistern belowground. ©James Ewing / OTTO
Through the day, Dilworth Park functions as an organized thoroughfare for commuters, a haven for city employees, and common ground for citizens and visitors arriving via public transit below; comfortable for both daily use and large events. Most importantly, it is a place of respite where tourists can rest, families can bring their kids, workers can enjoy lunch, and the city can come together. The team tested myriad scenarios before achieving the final design: a lawn to the south and a café to the north, anchored in the center by a plaza and programmable scrim fountain.
▲戏幕喷泉：Dilworth公园的喷泉很快便成为了最受欢迎的夏日游玩地之一，这里同样也是费城市民平日里的集会场地。The Scrim Fountain: Dilworth’s fountain has quickly become one of the most popular summertime hangouts and a common meeting ground for Philadelphians. ©OLIN / Sahar Coston-Hardy
The south lawn is gently sloped, bordered at its south end by an elegant stone bench that gently rises from the lawn to seat-level. In the spring and summer, the lawn hosts a variety of programming: picnics, sunbathing, fitness classes and concerts; in the winter, it transforms into a wintergarden installation. On the north side, a grove of trees is interspersed with vibrantly colored, moveable tables and chairs that spill out from the café pavilion, a structure seamlessly connected with the main stairway to the transit concourse. This makes the café a regular stop for commuters and a welcome resting spot for travelers throughout the city.
▲市区生活的中心：作为连接费城市区通勤者、居民和游客的核心枢纽，公园为各种类型的邻里活动提供了理想场所，包括市场、表演、校内体育活动和健身课程等。A Nucleus of Downtown Life: As the central hub of Philadelphia’s downtown, connecting commuters, residents, and visitors alike, the park is an ideal location for a myriad of neighborhood activities, from markets and performances to intramural sports and fitness classes. ©OLIN / Sahar Coston-Hardy
▲绿意盎然的体验：茂盛的灌木和草本植物与轻盈的树冠相结合，环绕着公园的集会区域，为所有的步行者们带来舒适的体验。A Lush Experience: An artful combination of lush shrubs and herbaceous plantings and lightly shading tree canopy frame the gathering areas within and make Dilworth Park comfortable for all pedestrians. ©OLIN / Sahar Coston-Hardy
The fountain was purposely scaled to encompass the largest portion of the site. During commuting hours, the panels of jets, all flush with the rest of the site, bubble gently to delineate circulation through the park, mask traffic noise and reflect the surrounding architecture. The team choreographed a more energetic display to take place during the day. Working with an artist the team integrated an illuminated ribbon within the fountain evoking the industrial history of Philadelphia in an engaging display of mist which is particularly evocative in the evenings. This engaging multi-sensory display has become a popular summertime attraction for families with young children, who delight in chasing the dancing jets. For events, the fountain can be quickly drained to accommodate both small and large crowds. In the winter, the fountain transforms into an ice skating rink, and the café offers skate rentals and warm beverages. Ice skating at Dilworth Park is now one of the most popular seasonal activities in the city.
▲戏幕喷泉：公园标志性的无障碍喷泉致敬了中央广场的悠久历史，它曾是费城的第一座供水厂和公共喷泉。The Scrim Fountain: The park’s signature fully accessible and flexible scrim fountain is a nod to the historic Centre Square’s former use as Philadelphia’s first waterworks and public fountain. ©OLIN / Sahar Coston-Hardy
▲艺术、交通和公共领域的交汇点：喷泉中设置了艺术家Janet Echelman创作的动态艺术作品。水雾和光带会随着下方的交通路线实时地摆动，在白天和夜晚激活广场的氛围。Where Art, Transit, and Public Realm Intersect: The fountain includes a kinetic art piece by artist Janet Echelman. Pulse features illuminated ribbons of atomized fog that billow in real time with the transit lines below, activating the plaza day and night. ©Third Eye Productions, Inc. / Mel Epps
▲四季皆宜的景观：冬天，喷泉的一部分区域会改造为溜冰场。人们于晚上在公园中聚集、滑冰和社交。Seasonal Appeal: In the winter, a portion of the popular fountain is transformed into a winter ice skating rink. Crowds gather well into the night to skate and socialize. ©Sahar Coston-Hardy
Today, Dilworth Park serves as the central square it was always intended to be, with over a million residents and visitors enjoying a newly beloved park befitting its iconic location. It is a place where Philadelphians and visitors converge to share in the vitality of the city. It’s a uniquely Philadelphian experience—one that recalls the city’s history and is designed to last far into the future.
▲适用于各种活动的灵活空间：平坦而灵活的表面使公园能够承载各种前所未有的活动。仅在2018年，公园就举办了250多场活动，接待了1080万名游客。A Flexible Space for Any Event: With its level, infinitely flexible surface, the park can host events like never before, reaching over 250 events and 10.8 million visitors in 2018 alone. ©OLIN / Sahar Coston-Hardy