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美国摩尔广场景观设计 | sasaki

SASAKI 2021-06-09
原创
  • 项目名称:
    摩尔广场
  • 项目地点:
    美国北卡罗来纳州罗利市
  • 项目规模:
    1.8 公顷
  • 设计公司:
    sasaki 
  • 委托方:
    罗利市政府
  • 建成时间:
    2019
  • 图片来源:
    Tzu Chen, Matthew Arielly

过去两百多年来,摩尔广场一直扮演着城市绿洲的角色,青草如茵、绿树成荫的环境,让人们无论阴晴都能在这里悠然自得,欢度时光。如同全球享负盛名的公共广场,占地逾1.8公顷的公园为迎合当地市民变化不断的使用需求历经了多番变迁;然而,它作为公共空间的功能从未动摇。

For over two centuries, Moore Square has persisted as an urban green space of tree canopy and turf providing a mix of shady and sunny places to gather and recreate, to see and be seen. Like all great public squares, the 4.5 acre park has evolved over time to fulfill the changing needs of the City of Raleigh. Its character of continuity lies in its persistent use as a public space.


▼摩尔广场俯瞰图

View from above © Tzu Chen

01_Moore Square_Tzu Chen.jpg


摩尔广场的历史可追溯到两个多世纪之前。1792年,罗利市成为北卡州首府,同年,拥有测量师背景的参议员威廉•克里斯马斯(William Christmas)获国会推举为这座新城定制土地和街道规划方案,他从400多公顷的林地选取了当中160公顷进行开发,并参考了费城的规划格局,按几何网格布置罗利市的城市肌理。在当年众多规划举措中,保留至今的只剩下摩尔广场、纳什广场和国会大厦广场,这些场地都是美国建国初期重要的市镇规划案例。

In 1792, the same year Raleigh was founded as North Carolina’s capital city, the General Assembly chose Senator William Christmas, a surveyor, to envision the lots and streets of the new capital. Christmas laid out 400 acres of city fabric through 1,000 acres of woodland, in a geometric grid which emulated the plan of Philadelphia. Moore Square, along with Nash Square and Capitol Square, is one of three remaining squares originally planned by Christmas and, as such, it is a significant example of early American town planning. 


▼几何网格式的城市肌理 

Geometric grid of the city © Tzu Chen 

03_Moore Square_Tzu Chen.jpg


随年月过去,广场的景观形态、空间和路径都已改变不少,但是那宽敞无边的草坪依然碧绿蓊郁。随着该区从住宅区慢慢发展为商业区,并从农产品交易中心过度成蓬勃的商贸重地(《吉姆•克劳法》年代的一条非裔美国人隔离街道也在其中),摩尔广场周遭的土地和建筑物在用途和性质上都改变许多。为了配合这些转变,广场原有的乡土景观也不免换了新面貌;这些仓促无序、且越发频密的更新措施,为后来的改造工程埋下伏笔。

While an enduring greensward, Moore Square’s landscape forms, spaces and surfaces have evolved over time. This evolution has occurred in response to changes in the character and use of the urban context—the surrounding blocks and buildings. As the area evolved from a residential to a commercial district, from an agricultural trading center to a vital business and commercial district including Raleigh’s African American main street during the Jim Crow era, the Square transformed the way vernacular landscapes do—incrementally, gradually, and often through a series of ad hoc measures.


▼摩尔广场上历史悠久的宽阔草坪 

Enduring greensward in the square © Barrett Doherty

17_Moore Square_Barrett Doherty.jpg


到了近年,公园的植被、土壤和道路更因为频繁的大型活动和日常使用而承受巨大压力,加上周边社区的开发计划陆续启动,市政府不得不为广场谋求改造,以配合使用者日益变化的需求。Sasaki与罗利市政府、利益相关单位和技术专家团队合作,以市民大众的利益为依归为摩尔广场制定规划改造方案。

In recent years, frequent large scale events and daily use have taken their toll on the parks vegetation, soils and paving. This pressure, combined with the planned development in the surrounding neighborhood, has prompted the City to renovate the square to meet the changing needs of its users. Sasaki has worked with the City, public stakeholders and a team of technical experts to develop a consensus-driven plan for the square.


▼以市民大众利益为依归的改造方案

Design aims to meet the changing needs of its users © MTA

08_Moore Square_MTA.jpg

14_Moore Square_MTA.jpg


设计方案利用 “方篮”策略,对广场的历史布局加以保护和强化:开放式中央露天空间的四边将种满高大的遮阴树,如同一个绿意满溢的边框;广场的与街道相接一侧的人行道将会拓宽,同时增建宽敞的入口广场和一排排花岗岩矮墙座位,这不仅为了满足使用者要求,加强广场和相邻街区的连接,也让广场显得更高雅端庄;广场南侧的路边停车位会被移除,以宽广的长形广场取代,农夫市场和社区活动日后可在这里举行;各个十字路口的形态也得到重新设计,通过压缩路口宽度以提升行人过路安全。

The proposed design protects and strengthens the square’s historic configuration: a frame of large shade trees enclosing an open, sunny central space. At the street edge, where users requested greater connectivity to the adjacent blocks, the design features a “dignified frame” of widened sidewalks, granite seat walls, and spacious entry plazas. On-street parking has been removed along the square’s southern edge to create a wide linear plaza that will host future farmers markets and other community events. Bump-outs have been added at all crosswalks to make pedestrian access to the square safer. 


▼宽敞的中央广场

 Open and sunny central space © Tzu Chen

05_Moore Square_Tzu Chen.jpg

▼有座椅的小型聚会空间

Gathering spaces with seats © MTA

13_Moore Square_MTA.jpg


矗立于广场四周的老橡树绝对是公园的经典特色,部分树木树龄更已过二百年,别具历史价值。为保护这些珍贵的自然景观,关键的树根范围被划定为保护区,禁止行人进入。为确切落实这些保护措施,设计方案利用一系列悉心构建的步行通道、矮围栏和地被植物,让行人自然而然地留在划定的路线上行走。如果各个保护区之间在规划或未来三十年发展过程中出现缝隙,管理者将种植新的树木加以填补,以确保边界保持完整。

The grand oak trees surrounding the square, some of which are over 200 years old, are the park’s defining feature. The design protects the trees by limiting foot traffic within their critical root zones. This achieved through judicious placement of pedestrian paths, and a combination of low rails and groundcover planting to dissuade people from leaving the paths. Where gaps in the tree perimeter exist, or will likely develop in the next 30 years, new trees will be planted to ensure the frame remains intact.


▼老橡树的树根范围被围栏保护起来

Foot traffic is limited within the root zones of the grand oak tree © MTA

07_Moore Square_MTA.jpg

12_Moore Square_MTA.jpg


在广场范围内,通行流线在沿用多年的X形基础上发展,其中一条新建的外缘路径,让访客有机会围绕中央草坪休闲漫步。中央草坪经重整后,带来灵活而开放的社区空间,适合用作季节性大型节目场地。整个草坪从西北到东南形成平缓的坡地,俨如一座绿意环抱的圆形剧场。三个昵称为“格罗夫客房 (Grove Rooms)”的小型聚会空间被树木保护区所围绕,艺术家布拉德•戈德堡(Brad Goldberg)设计的石墙坐席摆设其中,散发独有气氛。

In the interior of the square, circulation follows an historic X pattern, with a new perimeter path creating a promenade encircling the central lawn. The lawn has been engineered to meet the community’s demand for flexible open space, as well occasional need for larger gatherings. The entire lawn has a gentle pitch from northwest to southeast to create an amphitheater effect.  Three small gathering spaces, nicknamed “Grove Rooms,” are tucked within the tree frame. These feature stone seating elements design be artist Brad Goldberg.


▼中央草坪成为开放的社区空间

The central lawn as a flexible open space © MTA

04_Moore Square_MTA.jpg

06_Moore Square_MTA.jpg

▼昵称“格罗夫客房 (Grove Rooms)”的小型聚会空间

Gathering spaces nicknamed “Grove Rooms”© Barrett Doherty

15_Moore Square_Barrett Doherty.jpg

▼艺术家布拉德•戈德堡(Brad Goldberg)设计的石墙坐席

Stone seating elements design by artist Brad Goldberg© MTA

16_Moore Square_MTA.jpg


摩尔广场东南角是星罗棋布公共设施群,当中以多用途的市民广场为轴心,朝向西面的互动喷泉立于其中,把午后以至黄昏的阳光映照得闪闪生辉,一排排遮阴树和灵活坐席则可以满足附近居民各种各样的户外活动需求。开敞透光的藤蔓架把市民广场南侧点缀,也发挥凝聚社区的功能,藤蔓架中央的一座小亭楼容纳了咖啡厅、公共卫生间和储存空间,其设计受本地建筑风格启发,在外立面呈现石材、木材和金属三种原生材料。摩尔广场设有无障碍游乐区,其设计主题使人想起广域山麓地区的材质和地形特色。

The southeast corner of the square is home to a constellation of public amenities anchored by a flexible civic plaza. The plaza features an interactive fountain which faces west to capture afternoon sunlight. The plaza also includes flexible seating and shade trees to address the neighborhood’s need for flexible outdoor social spaces. The sense of social space is reinforced by an open, airy trellis which frames the plaza’s southern edge. A small pavilion at the center of the trellis contains a café, public restrooms and storage. Inspired by the vernacular architecture of the region, the pavilion façade foregrounds three native materials: stone, wood and metal. Lastly, the square includes an accessible play area designed to evoke the materials and topography of the broader piedmont region.


▼互动喷泉

Interactive fountain© MTA

10_Moore Square_MTA.jpg

▼容纳了咖啡厅、公共卫生间和储存空间的小亭楼

A small pavilion contains a café, public restrooms and storage © MTA

11_Moore Square_MTA.jpg

▼市民广场发挥凝聚社区的功能

The sense of social space reinforced by the square © MTA

09_Moore Square_MTA.jpg



项目信息

业主:罗利市政府

位置:美国北卡罗来纳州罗利市

规模:1.8 公頃

摄影:Tzu Chen, Matthew Arielly

专业领域:市政工程、景观

额外服务:建筑、公众参与、生态学、室内、规划与城市设计

现况: 2019完成


Client: City of Raleigh

Location: Raleigh, NC

Size: 4.5 acres

Photography: Tzu Chen, Matthew Arielly, Barrett Doherty

Services: Civil Engineering, Landscape Architecture

Additional Services: Interior Design, Planning and Urban Design, Architecture

Status: Completed 2019


编辑:周舟


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