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海南通德公祠景观设计 | 篆山营造

篆山营造 2021-10-28
原创
  • 项目名称:
    通德公祠
  • 项目地点:
    火山岩古村,海南
  • 设计公司:
  • 图片来源:
    叶曼,陈铭

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龙吉古村位于琼北火山岩古村带,依山就势,五条巷弄为火山岩喷薄而成,村南边的“通德堂”为明清建筑,坐北朝南,四合院落,抬梁木石结构。前堂石匾“通德堂”三字为海南清代进士张岳松所题。两个老祠堂基本上已没有屋顶,只剩下一些残墙,在小楼林立、罗马柱防盗窗琳琅满目的新村里,显然已失去了庄严的地位。

Longji Village is one of the volcanic stone villages in the north of Hainan. Located along the hill, Tongde Hall and Jiangxing Ancestral Hall were built in the Ming and Qing Dynasty in the form of Shiheyuan, featuring the lifting beam structure of timber and volcanic stone. The plaque on the front gate of Tongde Hall was inscribed by Zhang Yuesong, the advanced scholar called ”Jinshi” in the Qing Dynasty. Only a little more than a ruin, the two separate ancestral halls have nearly no roof above and only some broken walls left. They have obviously lost the high-status dignity submerged in the crowded concrete houses.


▼龙吉古村原貌细节 ©叶曼

Details of the original anciet village ©Ye Man

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▼老祠堂残墙 ©叶曼

 Some broken wall of ancestral halls ©Ye Man



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▼村落里古老的榕树 ©叶曼

The banyan trees ©Ye Man


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我们也曾耗时耗力通过高精度测绘、工艺考证、三维模型复原等手段,试图采用“修旧如初”的策略。复原模型呈现了汉族祖先刚到海南时,用本土材料奋力拼搏营造屋舍的状态,但因为砌体结构难以开窗洞,火山石处理费工,整个屋内呈现粗粝而晦暗的氛围,效果差强人意。如果就这样修旧如初,是否真的适合这个已经步入城镇化潮流的新村?十分有限的时间与经费是否能够真正做到修旧如初?与其修缮的仓促粗糙,何不保留这沧桑的精美?我们何不避免修护式破坏,将老祠堂封存起来的策略-废墟式保护,可能更适合这个项目。

We have tried to repair it as old as before, and spent a lot of time and energy on high-accuracy mapping, crafts verifying and 3D restoration modeling, but the results are not as expected. From the 3D restoration model, we can see the inner space was coarse and gloomy due to the limited technique of processing big thick lava stones and making openings on the envelope of the masonry structure, despite the hard efforts of the ancestors on constructing with local materials when they just arrived on the island. If it is repaired as old as before , will it adapt to the new village that has developed rapidly in urbanization? Can the limited time and budget meet up the demands? Why not retaining the beauty of vicissitudes rather than hasty and rough repairing that may produce artificial irreversible damages to it? The strategy of building a protection for the ruins may be more appropriate for this project.


▼效果图—废墟式保护策略 ©篆山营造

Project redering—protection for the ruins ©Zhanshanyingzao


以“为老祠堂加冕”为核心思想,该项目引入柔性拉索支撑的钢木框架体系,为“通德堂”“将兴公祠”两个破落的祠堂遗址建造了一个保护性构筑物,使“族长”一般的老祠堂成为整个村里体量最大的建筑,恢复往日的荣光。新增的965平方米玻璃顶,仿佛一把大伞,为遗址遮避雨水。

We are committed to the regain of the former glory of the ancient ancestral halls, the “Emeer” of the village. To crown them again as the prominent landmark in the village, an innovative cable-suspended steel-timber frame system with tall wood columns and a 965㎡glass roof are structured to connect the two relics as one. 


▼柔性拉索支撑的钢木框架体系 ©叶曼

The cable-suspended steel-timber frame system © Ye Man

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▼新增的965平方米玻璃顶 ©叶曼

The 965㎡glass roof ©Ye Man


78根海南第一名木“坡垒”,形成柱阵,由钢索拉结为一个柔性而稳定的结构体系,可在海岛台风之中守护老祠堂的周全。该项目实现了在较短的周期内,以较低的成本,为等级不是特别高的遗址建筑提供了一种活化再生的设计思路。

78 wood columns form a matrix integrated with a flexible but stable steel cable structure to protect the ancestral halls, and it holds up a giant umbrella to save the relics from the rain. The design worked out a way of rebirth for low level historic relics in limited time and with limited cost. 


▼78根名木形成柱阵 ©陈铭

78 wood columns for a cable structure ©Chen Ming


项目保留了原来祠堂遗址中的参天榕树,用以遮阳,在斑驳的火山岩石墙上投出婆娑的树影。新增的965平方米玻璃顶,仿佛一把大伞,为遗址遮避雨水。

The towering banyan trees inside the courtyard are carefully reserved climbing outside the roof, and their dreamlike reflections on the wall dance tranquilly in the sunshine.


▼保留原有场地内的参天榕树 ©陈铭

The towering banyan tree ©Chen Ming

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原址的火山岩砌体结构与其上的钢木张拉结构形成鲜明的对比,是海南国际自由贸易岛建设

时期的文化对撞期的建筑化表达。

The strong contrast between the old volcanic stone walls and the newly-built steel and wood tensile space structure represents the civilization collision of Hainan, which is developing from a traditional island to the international free trade port. 


▼古老村落在夜晚重焕容光 ©陈铭

The village in the nignt ©Chen Ming

▼立面图 ©篆山营造

Elevation ©Zhuanshanyingzao

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▼剖面图 ©篆山营造

Section ©Zhuanshanyingzao

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▼轴测图 ©篆山营造

Axonometric drawings ©Zhuanshanyingzao


▼平面图 ©篆山营造

Plan ©Zhuanshanyingzao

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项目信息

项目名称:通德公祠

项目地址:火山岩古村,海南

摄影师:叶曼,陈铭

设计事务所:篆山营造

Project: Tongde Hall of ancestral halls

Location: Longji Village, Hainan, China

Photographer: Ye Man, Chen Ming

Design studio: Zhuanshanyingzao



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