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北京城市屋顶上的小院景观设计 | 易禾设计

易禾规划设计 2021-11-17
原创
  • 项目名称:
    城市屋顶上的小院
  • 项目地点:
    北京
  • 项目规模:
    约16平米
  • 设计公司:

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2017年, 这个设计Studio开始被启用,工作室东侧连接着一个16平方米的小天台,虽然很小,但清晨朝阳洒下来的时候感觉非常棒,地面的防腐木稍显破旧,北侧有个室外钢梯可以上到工作室的屋顶。

This Studio was opened in 2017. A small roof of about 16 square meters is connected to the east side of the studio. It is great when the sun shines down. The ground is simply covered with anticorrosive wood.There is a steel ladder on the north side that can go up to the roof of the studio. 


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2017-2021四年时光流转过来,每年夏季的时候,这个天台都成为高频使用的空间,植物种植的实验室,但同时也发现了一些问题。

1、关于阳光:天台位于建筑北侧,朝正东没有遮挡,可以接收到一大早的阳光,但是东南方向的高层塔楼遮蔽了天台8:30-11点的日光,11-12点,天台东侧可得到短时的日照,下午4-5点以后,西侧的斜阳,可扫到天台东北角。所以东北角是日照最好的位置,喜阳和不惧日照的植物要放在这个位置,其它位置基本比较阴,适合喜阴和特别喜阴的植物。

2、关于季风:天台是14层的屋顶,冬季西北风呼啸,初春风也不小。所以这里的春季比地面要晚1个月,冬季也比地面要早来半个月。这点就像高海拔的山里,所谓“人间四月芳菲尽,山寺桃花始盛开。”

3、关于雨水:七八九月雨季,雨水丰沛,植物无需浇水,需要防涝。其它时间都非常干旱,春季浇水的工作量大。

4、关于季节:5-10月是天台最佳的使用季节,冬季若有雪,则成为漫长冬日有趣的点缀。

2021年七月,经历疫情又无法离开城市的人们,始终向往与自然、天空、大气、树叶、植物,更多的接触,于是有了这个天台小院微改造,希望将这小块距离人类最近的室外,改造为城市屋顶上的一个小小庭院,一块绿色屋顶,同时将工作室内废弃的家具拆分并做防水处理,在室外做二次利用。

Four years have passed. Every summer, We love this rooftop and also find some problems. 
1. Regarding sunlight: The rooftop is located on the north side of the building, and it is not blocked to the east. It can receive early morning sunlight, but the high-rise towers in the southeast direction basically shield the rooftop from 8:30-11 o'clock. During 11-12 o'clock, the east side of the rooftop can get short-term sunshine. After 4-5PM. in the afternoon, the slanting sunlight from the west side can sweep to the northeast corner of the rooftop. Therefore, the northeast corner is the best location for getting more sunlight. Plants that are sunny habitats and not afraid of sunlight should be placed in this location. The other locations are basically shaded and suitable for shade-loving and particularly shade-loving plants.
 2. Regarding the monsoon: The terrace is a on a 14-story building’s rooftop. In winter, the wind from northwest is whistling and the early spring is windy too. Therefore, the spring here is one month later than the ground area, and the winter is half a month earlier than. This is like in the high mountains above sea level, the so-called " In April, the earth is full of flowers, and the peach blossoms of the mountain temple begin to bloom." 
3. Regarding rain: The rainy season in July, August and September, there have Abundant rain water. Plants do not need to be watered, and waterlogging prevention is required. The rest of the time is very dry, and the workload of watering in spring is heavy.
4. About the season: May-October is the best season. If there is snow in winter, it will become an interesting decoration for the long winter.
In July 2021, after experiencing the 2020 Covid-19 and unable to leave the city, we have always yearned for more contact with nature, sky, atmosphere, leaves, plants, and so on. Therefore, we have this small courtyard renovation, hope to transform this small area closest to us into a small courtyard on the roof of the city, a green roof, and at the same time, the abandoned indoor furniture is split and waterproofed, and it is reused outdoors.



关于功能

Function


面积和空间有限的前提下,我们却期待着更完整的功能呈现,期望它将会是:

一个在清晨接收到正东太阳能量的场所(感受光影变幻和四季轮回。)

Under the premise of limited area and space, we greedily look forward to a more complete functional presentation of the small courtyard, and hope that it will be:
A place where solar energy can be received in the east direction in the early morning(Feel the change of light and shadow and the reincarnation of the four seasons)


03看正东.jpg

一个可坐可卧的户外休息空间

An outdoor rest space where you can sit and lie down

一个季节性的植物展台,一个Kitchen Garden生长着罗勒、迷迭香、百里香、紫苏、小香葱、芦荟等等。

A seasonal plant booth, A Kitchen Garden, basil, rosemary, thyme, perilla, chives, aloe vera

一个开放式厨房+室外院落的烧烤、茶饮聚会空间(当厨房玻璃门全部打开时,室内外空间是流通的。)

An open kitchen + outdoor courtyard dining and gathering space (when the kitchen glass doors are all opened, the indoor and outdoor spaces are circulated.)



关于植物

About plants 


由于天台光照不足,季风大,不利于大多数植物的生长和越冬,如何延续天台植物的生命就成为一个问题。2017-2020历时4年,每年春播季,设计师都会撒种或移栽不同的植物幼苗在种植箱,看哪些植物更能够适应天台的日照和小气候。5-8月通常是天台生命最旺盛的季节。

为了研究湿地植物和海绵城市,我们开始在各种大罐子里试种湿地植物,千屈菜、香蒲、芦苇、水葱、再力花等等。在日照最好的东北角处移栽了好养活的凌霄苗、爬藤蔷薇、七里香,北侧增加了挡风的木格栅,希望今年的爬藤可以越冬,这个角落还撒了些蜀葵种子、紫苏种子、罗勒小苗、两颗芦荟。

关于4年植物实验的结论


百里香、罗勒、紫苏、小香葱、辣椒,这些都是长得非常好的厨用植物,皮实。

多肉植物在夏季基本可以扔在露天不用管,耐旱耐湿的很。

土壤表面需要覆盖物,卵石或木屑,或者其它植物残肢,以减缓水分的蒸发,水土保持,这点很重要,因为5、6月份浇水的工作量真的很大。

怕风的花卉不适合这里,比如绣球。

露台不太适合种爬藤类的蔬菜瓜果,比如葫芦、苦瓜、葡萄等,因为这些果实生成需要更多的照料和营养的补给,以及充足的阳光。

夏日晚间的蚊子是个问题,至今没发现什么太好的方法。

关于小院生活


作为一个四季分明的城市,天台小院,跟随季节变化呈现着不同的面孔,更重要的是带来不同可能性的可参与的活动,并形成一个闭环。

春季,3月是育苗和撒种的季节,也是选择实验种植不同植物的时刻,一年生草花的种子可以直接洒在室外的花钵里,多年生的草本和藤本植物,有一部分死掉了,另一部分会随着天气和水分补给缓慢复苏,冬季期间移入室内的植物,需要重新整理,在4月下旬以后移到室外,因为过早移出室外会导致已经适应室内的植物直接冻死或被季风吹死。植物的重新整理和布局会带来一定量的体力劳动,但同时也带来一些愉悦和充满希望的时刻。5月份开始,植物就迅速繁茂起来。

夏季6、7、8月是属于户外的季节,也是天台小院使用率最高的季节,哪怕只是简单的浇水和观花,也带来无穷的乐趣,是设计师在忙碌中偶尔放松和休息的好机会。

秋季9、10月,雨水还在继续,日照不再强烈,几乎不用浇水就可以维持植物的平衡,蚊子也消失了。

冬季,11、12、1、2月是天台小院绝对的冬季,10月底11月初要把一部分植物搬入室内,各就各位,整个冬季,植物可以在室内继续热闹,散发着自然的气息。

春、夏、秋、冬,由于植物的存在,让室内外空间形成一个闭环,也让天台小院的生命在冬季得以延续,并在春季迅速复苏。

改造后的天台小院呈现出来的样子

长长的花台来自室内废弃床具的一部分,清理后刷2遍防腐木油就成为一个非常适合沙发高度的条几和花台

Due to insufficient sunlight on the rooftops and strong monsoons, which are not conducive to the growth and overwintering of most plants, how to extend the life of rooftop plants has become a problem. 2017-2020 lasts 4 years. Every spring sowing season, different plant seedlings will be planted or transplanted in the planting box to see which plants can better adapt to the sunshine and microclimate of the rooftop. 
May-August is usually the most vigorous season for life in terrace.
In order to study wetland plants and stormwater management, we began to plant wetland plants in various large pots, such as Lythrum chinensis, cattails, reeds, water onions, Thalia dealbata, etc. In the northeast corner where the sunshine is the best, we transplanted Campsis grandiflora, rose vine, and Daphne  odera, and added a windshield wooden grille on the north side. I hope that this year’s vines can survive the winter. I plant some hollyhock seeds, perilla seeds, basil seedlings, and two aloes.
Conclusion about 4 years of plant experiment
Thyme, basil, basil, chives, and peppers are all very good kitchen plants, easy to grow.
Succulents can basically be left unattended in the open air in summer, and they are very resistant to drought and humidity.
The surface of the soil needs mulch, pebbles or sawdust, or other plant residues to slow down the evaporation of water. This is very important because the workload of watering in May and June is really heavy. 
Flowers that are afraid of wind are not suitable here, such as hydrangea. 
The terrace is not suitable for growing vine-type vegetables and fruits, such as gourds, bitter gourds, grapes, etc., because these fruits require more care and nutritional supply, as well as plenty of sunlight. 
Mosquitoes in summer evenings are a problem, so far no good methods have been found.
As a city with four distinct seasons, Roof garden presents different faces following the changes of the seasons. More importantly, the terrace brings different activities to participate in and forms a closed loop. 
In Spring, March are the season for seedling raising and sowing. It is also the time to choose different plants for experimentation. The seeds of herbal flowers can be sprinkled directly in outdoor flower pots. Some of the perennial herbs and vines are dead, and the others will recover slowly with the weather and water supply. Plants moved indoors during winter need to be rearranged, and moved outdoors after late April, because moving out too early will cause plants that have adapted to indoors to freeze to death or be blown to death by the monsoon. The rearrangement and layout of plants will bring a certain amount of physical labor, but at the same time it will also bring some joyful and hopeful moments. Starting in May, the plants flourished rapidly. 
In summer, June, July, and August are the outdoor seasons, and they are also the season with the highest usage rate of rooftop courtyards. Even simple watering and watching flowers will bring endless fun, and it is a good opportunity for occasional relaxation and rest during the busy schedule.
 In September and October in autumn, the rain continued, the sunshine was no longer strong, the balance of the plants could be maintained almost without watering, and the mosquitoes disappeared. 
In winter, November, December, January and February is the absolute winter in the terrace courtyard. At the end of October and early November, some plants will be moved indoors and put in their respective positions. Throughout the winter, the plants can continue to live indoors and exude a natural atmosphere. 
In spring, summer, autumn and winter, due to the existence of plants, the indoor and outdoor spaces form a closed loop, which also allows the life of the rooftop courtyard to continue in winter and quickly recover in spring.
The appearance of the reconstructed rooftop courtyard
The long flower table comes from a part of the abandoned indoor bed. After cleaning, brush with anti-corrosive wood oil twice to become a table and flower table that is very suitable for the height of the sofa.


023旧物改造花台_副本.jpg


花台后的休憩空间

Resting space behind the flower stand

方形多用矮凳也来自室内废弃的家具。

The square multipurpose low stool also comes from discarded indoor furniture.

户外帐篷炉是户外露营时用的,于是平时就可以安置在这里,让小院充满了户外的味道。

The outdoor tent stove is used for outdoor camping, so it can be placed here at ordinary times, so that the small courtyard is full of outdoor flavor.

029煮茶.jpg

户外折叠长桌,是一件重要的可移动家具,不用的时候可以收起来,户外聚会时摆出来。

The outdoor long folding table is an important movable piece of furniture, which can be put away when not in use and placed out for outdoor gatherings.

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可折叠的长桌和户外炉具

Foldable long table and outdoor stove

茶饮

Tea time

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储物坐台,在原花池位置用防腐木做三段可以取下的活盖,内部储藏花园用品。

Storage sitting platform, use anti-corrosion wood to make three removable covers in the original planting bed, and store garden supplies inside.

东侧晒太阳的躺椅

Sun loung on the east side

天台小院的天空

The sky of the rooftop courtyard

光影变化

Light and shadow 

花台上积年的杂物

Years of debris on the flower stand

爬藤凌霄和多肉植物

Campsis chinensis and succulents


在这次微改造中,小院里除了一组户外沙发,一个小竹桌,防风木格栅,并没有添置新的物品,所有花器、桌椅、摆件都是旧年积累的,本着环保和可持续发展的理念,也并没有选择一些难以养护的植物,而是更多的尝试低维护的植物,有趣的自然荒野植物,追求城市中人与自然有限的和谐共处。

2021年11月,微改造完成后,这一年的初雪特别早也特别大。

“白雪纷纷何所似,撒盐空中差可拟。”

雪中的天台小院是这样的:

In this micro-renovation, apart from a set of outdoor sofas, a small bamboo table, and windproof wooden grilles, no new items have been added to the small courtyard. In line with the concept of environmental protection and sustainable development, we did not choose some difficult-to-maintain plants, but tried more low-maintenance plants, interesting natural wilderness plants, and pursued the harmonious coexistence of people and nature in the city.
In November 2021, the first snow of this year is very early and very heavy. " What snow is like, it seems to be sprinkling salt in the air." 
The rooftop courtyard in the snow looks like this:



大雪过后,一切都变成黑白了,一切都失去了棱角。

After the heavy snowfall, everything turned black and white, everything became round.



项目信息

项目名称:城市屋顶上的小院

项目地点:北京

项目规模:约16平米

设计公司:易禾设计 

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