深圳荷水文化基地暨洪湖公园水质净化厂上部景观设计 | 南沙原创
An Urban Park on Top of a Fully-buried Water Treatment Plant
Infrastructure Publicization: Shenzhen Lotus Water Culture Base ©Zhang chao
01 Background and History
The Project is located at the northern end of Honghu Park, Luohu District, Shenzhen City, south of Nigang East Road and east of Buji River. Honghu Park is a lotus-themed municipal park known for its bald cypress forest and white egret flock. Completed and opened in 1985, it is not only one of the earliest parks built after the establishment of Shenzhen Special Economic Zone, but also one of the most important urban parks in the eyes of Shenzhen citizens.
Relationship between site and surrounding space ©NODE
To tackle the much-concerned water environment problems, the city released Shenzhen Water Control and Quality Improvement Work Plan (2015-2020) was released in 2015, which proposed an investment of CNY 81.6 billion on improvement of water environment, including construction and expansion of 19 sewage treatment plants, improvement of 24 ones, and accelerated river improvement initiatives. The newly built Honghu Park Water Purification Plant, one of the key projects for water pollution control under the Work Plan, employs a leading fully-buried water purification technology and involves the restoration of surface landscape of about 3.24 ha. It aims to effectively alleviate the sewage increase problems resulting from the urban renewal and development in Qingshui River - Sungang Area. Upon completion, the facility can treat and purify about 18 million m3 of domestic sewage for the surrounding areas every year, an equivalent of about 1.3 times the water volume of the West Lake in Hangzhou.
Aerial in the north of Honghu Park (before construction)©Southwest Municipal Council
When we joined the project team, the general contracting designer had completed the design and construction drawings of the underground water purification plant and everything had been ready for construction. In this project, we were asked to design the restored surface landscape on top of the water purification facility, and the underground offices at the northern end.
02 Design Challenges
Though we were engaged to only provide SD for the surface landscape improvement in the Project, we had to achieve sufficient understanding and conduct necessary research about the technical logic and production process/logic behind the landscape design, as the surface landscape is closely related to the underground facility and the surface flood control requirements. On this basis, we intended to go beyond the engineering logic, and tried to create an aesthetic and community-friendly public space.
In the flood season every year, the water level of Buji River west of the site rises. When the water level reaches a certain height, the river water will flow into Honghu Lake where a flood storage area is formed to alleviate the water level rise in the flood season. As the site is a low land that falls within the flood discharge passage, the final flood control safety assessment of the Project determined that the site elevation for 100-year flood is 12.4 m and that for a 200-year flood is 13.4 m. In this case, the site landscape needed improvement while meeting the requirement on flood discharge passage as a buffer for flood discharge. To ensure water safety, it was fundamental to tackle the existing site elevation and designed ones with due care. For example, the lowest elevation of the vent shaft door and window opening out of the ground must reach 100-year flood is 12.4 m; The evacuation staircase exits and supporting office buildings must reach 200-year flood is 13.4 m.
Vent shaft and waterfront ting step ©Zhang Chao
Honghu Lake Water Treatment Plant on a 1.67 ha site was to be built in two phases. The technical part for water treatment is a fully-buried double-layer frame structure, with the water treatment capacity of 50,000 m3 and 100,000 m3 per day in Phase I and long term respectively. The main indices shall meet the requirements of quasi class IV water body in the Standard for Environmental Quality of Surface Water. The treated effluent is used to supplement the water in the ecological landscape of Honghu Park and Buji River. The design for this part had been fully completed by the general contracting designer before we were brought aboard. In fact, the fully-buried building inevitably brought issues that need no special attention in the case of surface buildings, such as the forms of the visible above-grade part of the underground ventilation and fire control facilities, which were the focus of design. The original intention of buried facilities for "deindustrialization" was actually presented and brought into reality in another form. This was also the unique feature of the Project and one of the most important challenges facing the surface landscape restoration design.
Diagram of underground water purification (-1F) process ©NODE
Diagram of underground water purification (-2F) process ©NODE
Underground Water Purification Plant (-1F) Space © Zhang Chao
Claims of Different Stakeholder
In addition to the above water-related design challenges, we were also faced with various claims from different stakeholders (such as the government, the park authority, and Operator）as we started our designs, due to the park’s importance and much attention it had attracted. For example, the government required that the greening rate of the ground should be restored to 86%, the wetland planning be followed and the relationship between the original ecological bird island(s) and the landscape be well balanced under the sponge city concept. The park management needed nearly 7,000 m2 as a lotus nursery cultivation base, and the restoration of the natural lake shoreline and nearly 5,000 m2 of water body. The operators aspired for creating a “deindustrialized” wild landscape which, coupled with public science visits, may change people’s stereotype about “sewage plant”. In our opinion, these are typical issues encountered in the design process of many urban projects. Design is always "on the way", and we should always keep a "change-embracing" mindset towards various requirements in different stages, to ensure that the "on-the-way" design will not affect the overall progress of construction; but for us, the biggest challenge was to ensure the original intention and the final completeness of the design in a continuous "changing" process.
Process version of Detour scheme effect ©NODE
Final implementation scheme effect picture ©NODE
Water Landscape - Infrastructure Publicization
As mentioned above, our SD design needed to, on one hand, streamline the technical difficulties or normative preconditions brought by underground production infrastructure and, on the other hand, incorporate the spatial demands of different stakeholders in different stages, the site conditions and our own design ideas. We should not only restore the park landscape, but also create a new public landscape area that is different from any conventional landscape-only design and realize the project goals in terms of mixed-use functions, aesthetic pursuit, public education and diversified and multi-level experience.
Concept section ©NODE
03 Strategy and Design Approach
Given the above requirements and challenges, it is critical to focus on the core issue, i.e. the interface between engineering design and space design.
Spillway and flood control elevation ©NODE
▼整体航拍： 突出地面的13个风井 ©张超
Overall aerial photograph: 13 vent shafts protruding from the ground © Zhang Chao
▼ 顺应场地，北侧用自然叠水消化高差 ©张超
To adapt to the site, the north side uses natural water to digest the height difference © Zhang Chao
▼ 轴侧功能图 ©NODE
Axis Side function diagram ©NODE
Art Installation Treatment and Publicization of Infrastructure
两层地下净水厂的工程设计无疑在消防及排水等方面带来与地面建筑不同的挑战。出地面风井（部分含消防梯）大小共计13个，大小高度不一，与公园生态环境格格不入。公园方希望我们从原洪湖公园的岭南园林特色中提取历史符号, 做直接的装饰。但对我们而言, 不仅是简单“穿衣戴帽”的装饰, 还是可以结合公共体验和自然教育等理念，在空间层次、材料运用及造型语言上做更深层的转化？这是一个价值观与设计的双重问题。我们尝试对岭南园林的“塔、亭、榭、廊”空间原型进行适度的设计研究和“元素”提取，用当代设计语言及材料去做转化及表达，同时结合景观及植被特点，将文化和自然特点有效结合起来，尝试化解基础设施过于工程化的死板形象。
The engineering design of the two-floor underground water treatment plant undoubtedly posed challenges different from those faced by surface buildings in terms of fire protection, drainage, etc,. In particular, thirteen vent shafts (some containing fire evacuation stairs) of different sizes and heights protruded out of the ground level, an inharmonious contract with the ecological environment of the park. The park management encouraged us to extract historical symbols from the Lingnan gardens of the former Honghu Park and use them as ornamental elements. But we must figure out whether ornaments were simple “addition of symbols”, or they could be transformed at a deeper level in terms of space, material and shape in combination with the concepts of public experience, natural education, etc. This was an issue about values and design. We conducted some design research on and “element” extraction from the original spaces of the “pagodas, pavilions, gazebos and corridors” of Lingnan gardens, and transformed and expressed them with contemporary design languages and materials. Then we incorporated the cultural and natural characteristics based on the landscape and vegetation characteristics, and tried to dissolve the stereotype of the infrastructure resulting from overemphasized engineering features.
▼ 风井分布与公共装置类型示意 ©NODE
Vent shaft distribution and public device type ©NODE
▼ 装置概念演变 ©NODE
Device Concept Evolution ©NODE
Ventilation shaft and public device axis side diagram ©NODE
▼ 三种风井装置平面图：#5风井，#12中型风井，荷花塔 ©NODE
Three kinds of vent shafts device plan: #5 air shaft, #12 medium air shaft, Lotus tower ©NODE
Three kinds of vent shafts device plan: #5 vent shaft, #12 medium vent shaft, Lotus tower ©NODE
For example, the highest deodorizing vent shaft was nealy16 m above the ground, and we naturally made it a 3D abstraction of lotus, the theme plant repeatedly emphasized by the park management, and a public art installation. The bird watching and observation platform helped eliminate the compulsory but visually-awkward vent shafts and evacuation stairs, injecting“useful” experience in them and creating an important lotus landmark in Honghu Park.
▼ 最高风井装置——荷花塔 ©张超
The highest vent shaft device -- Lotus Tower © Zhang Chao
Lotus Tower -- Stairway to platform ©Zhang Chao
Lotus Tower—Detail structure ©Zhang Chao
The six medium-sized vent shafts containing evacuation stairs were designed with accessible paths and platforms, reflecting different characteristics in spatial form. The six small ones were dedicated for ventilation, so only facade greening on grilles of similar materials were employed to enhance the natural feel, including a rain shelter with seats. During the whole design process, we’ve been trying to avoid excessive design despite of many unexpected factors “informed” about the underground works. We neither highlight nor cover up, but instead, we made the best out of the project conditions to achieve natural unity and harmony.
▼ 通过水上汀步走入风井 ©张超
Walk through the water into the vent shaft ©Zhang Chao
Light steel structure wraps the vent shaft ©Zhang Chao
▼ 地面步行系统 ©张超
Ground walking system ©Zhang Chao
▼ 慢行体验小径 ©张超
Slow trail © Zhang Chao
Underground Supporting Building: Explicit and Implicit Presentation of Gardens
北端地下配套建筑整体主要功能为办公空间，因其位于洪湖公园的末端，位置较偏。如何创造足够的吸引力，引导公众发现并步行而至，这是个关键的设计问题。在此，我们采取了“软硬兼施”的设计策略：一方面是在办公功能之外，增加公共教育及科普功能，例如结合地下开放花园，设置一个可对公众开放的净水科普展厅；另一方面，在地面层，尝试做出一个有特色的公共空间及园林作为景观亮点及展厅的暖场区域，以吸引人流。The northernmost underground supporting building was planned as office space. As it stood at the end of the Park, geographically out of the way, how to create enough magnets to guide the public to discover and walk to it became a key design issue. As response, we adopted a design strategy that emphasizes both software and hardware. On the one hand, we added the functions of public education and science popularization on top of office function, such as creating a water purification exhibition hall in combination with the underground open garden; on the other hand, we tried to create a distinctive public space and garden on ground level as the landscape highlight and the pre-function zone of the exhibition hall to attract people.
▼ 北侧配套办公区 ©张超
Supporting Office area in the north ©Zhang Chao
Supporting office area — ground landscape garden ©Zhang Chao
▼ 配套办公区——地面园林廊亭 ©张超
Supporting Office Area -- Ground garden Gallery © Zhang Chao
Here, we extended the gardening concept. With reference to the contemporary formal language and constructional forms, we arranged the basic and explicit spatial elements of “pavilion and corridor” around the the underground open garden, and connected them with circulations to the underground public exhibition halls and office spaces. This approach, both a tribute to the classic precedents and a proper innovation, helped create a secluded, quiet and slightly mysterious surface garden.
▼ Logo景观墙概念效果示意 ©NODE
Concept effect of Logo Landscape wall ©NODE
▼ 景墙实景 ©张超
Landscape Wall ©Zhang Chao
The project lasted four years from the commencement of our surface landscape design to the project completion. However, for such infrastructure projects posing major engineering and aesthetic challenges, the consensus and cooperation among different disciplines and professional practices cannot be reached overnight. In fact, there is still a long way for us to go, and all stakeholders need to work together toward this goal.Upon its completion, the project was renamed as Shenzhen Lotus Water Culture Base. It represents another important attempt of NODE team in infrastructure publicization projects over the years in terms of interdisciplinary design practice of water purification and landscape architecture. As always, we hope that, through the active design efforts of landscape architects/architects, the water purification facilities that are indispensible for our daily life will become pleasant and ceremonial places in the city for public experience and learning, thus redefine the significance of infrastructure from the dimensions of spirit and landscape/architectural aesthetics.
Lotus Tower and Vent Shaft in sunset © Zhang Chao
Night view © Zhang Chao
▼ 总平面图 ©NODE
Master plan ©NODE
▼ 总剖面图 A-A ©NODE
Section A-A ©NODE
▼ 总剖面图B-B ©NODE
Section B-B ©NODE
Plan of supporting Office Area ©NODE
▼ 配套办公区（-1F）平面图 ©NODE
Supporting Office Area (-1F) Plan ©NODE
Profile of supporting office area 1-1 ©NODE
Profile of supporting office area 2-2 ©NODE
▼ 配套办公区廊亭大样 ©NODE
Supporting office Area Gallery Pavilion layout ©NODE
Plan of lotus Tower ©NODE
Lotus Tower section ©NODE
▼ 风井平面图 ©NODE
Vent shaft plan ©NODE
Ventilation shaft profile ©NODE
Stair details ©NODE
Large sample of superimposed water section ©NODE
项目名称 : 深圳荷水文化基地暨洪湖公园水质净化厂上部景观设计
结构体系：混凝土框架（净水厂出地面风井）+ 钢结构（风井装置） ，剪力墙结构（地下配套建筑），钢结构（配套建筑地面亭廊）
Project Name: Landscape Design for Shenzhen Lotus Water Culture Base and Ground Level of Honghu Park
Water Purification Plant
Project type: Infrastructure
Location: Luohu District, Shenzhen city
Design : NODE Architecture & Urbanism
Lead Architects: Doreen Heng Liu
Program and project process: Doreen Heng Liu,, Jiebin Huang, Zanning Huang
Overall implementation plan: Doreen Heng Liu,, Jingyue Xu, Xiaohong Lin, Junhao Huang,Weimin Lu(internship)
Overall program process: Jiahui Yang, Zhibo Xu, Qingsong Lu
Vent shafts scheme: Yupeng Zhou, Shuya Zeng(internship), Manzhi Wang (internship)
Supporting Buildings: Yueyu Tang(internship), Xin Li (internship), Haoyuan Tian(internship)
Completed status: Completed
Design time: 2017.Nov-2021.Mar
Construction time: 2020.Oct-2021.Sep
Site area: Ground landscape restoration 32,400 sqm
Floor area : Underground supporting office and exhibition 1760 sqm
Construction: Shenzhen Water (Group) Co., LTD
Ground landscape restoration + underground supporting building design scheme and deepening :
NODE Architecture & Urbanism
Underground water purification plant engineering design : China Municipal Engineering Southwest Design and Research Institute Co., LTD
Design contractor and construction drawing: China Municipal Engineering Southwest Design and Research Institute Co., LTD
Structure + electromechanical: China Municipal Engineering Southwest Design and Research Institute Co., LTD
Lighting Consultant: Shenzhen Light Program Technology Co., LTD
Structural system: concrete frame (air shaft of water purification plant) + steel structure (air shaft device), shear wall structure (underground supporting building), steel structure (ground pavilion gallery of supporting building)
Materials: fluorocarbon coated steel, green bricks and tiles, permeable asphalt, permeable bricks, granite, plastic wood
Photographer: Zhang Chao