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宁波市东部新城生态走廊(三期)景观设计 | 土人设计

土人设计 2020-05-26
原创
  • 项目名称:
    海绵绿道:宁波市东部新城生态走廊(三期)
  • 项目地点:
    中国宁波
  • 项目规模:
    37公顷(建成12.2公顷)
  • 设计公司:
  • 建成时间:
    2016年


概要:

以综合生态系统服务为目标,引入梯田湿地景观解决场地高差,将原有的硬化河道进行曲化和生态化设计,并在水中植入树岛,让水流慢下来,同时增加生物与水体的接触面,净化城市地表径流,并使河流的自净能力得以加强;在植被设计中,引入农业景观和一年生花卉轮作,将四季时令和农事活力引入城市,为都市带来变化和惊喜;栈道穿梭于丰富的乡土植被和田园景观之中,将人的活动浸入自然和充满乡愁的田园;以耐候钢为材料的风雨亭,漂浮于湿地和梯田之上,给自然为主题的生态廊道打上了当代城市生活与艺术的烙印。


Project Statement:

The Sponge Greenway was built upon a typical post-industrial site with degraded ecological function that was slated to become part of a new urbanized district. The holistic, ecosystem services-oriented project introduced terraced wetlands to slow the flow of urban runoff and remove pollutants. The original channelized river was transformed into a meandering, ecologically functional waterway dotted with tree-covered islands to increase the interface between organisms and the water bodies, in order to boost the river’s natural purification capacity. Crops and flowers are rotated to create a sense of seasonal surprise and agricultural vitality within the growing city. The project’s boardwalks are designed to bring visitors closer to the natural landscape. Pavilions made of corten steel float on the wetlands and terraces, lending a touch of contemporary style to the ecological corridor. This project demonstrated that an engineered landscape, as a kind of ecological infrastructure, can heal the degraded ecological system while providing social and cultural services to the neighboring communities.


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1.场地现状与挑战

宁波市东部新城生态走廊(中山路—铁路)位于宁波市东部新城总体规划生态廊道南段,南北长1286米,东西最宽处434米,总占地面积为37.4公顷。建成区段为中山路至百丈东路之间,南北长470东西宽最宽处470米,共12.2公顷。位于北纬29°51′14″,东经121°37′14″。基地四周环绕城市规划道路,北侧以中山路为界,南侧以铁路为界,西侧为福庆路,东侧为规划道路。设计之初,基地及周边为农田斑块、村庄与工厂,地势平坦,河网纵横,水体受生活及工业污染严重,河渠局部裁弯取直和硬化。乡镇企业留下的厂房、水泥铺装及堆料分布于场地之中,生活和工业垃圾填满河道,为典型的江南地区城乡结合部的棕地。


1. Site and Challenges

The Ningbo Eastern New Town Ecological Corridor (Zhongshan Road-Railway) is 1286 meters long from north to south and 434 meters wide from east to west, with a total area of 37.4 hectares. The completed section is between Zhongshan Road and Baizhang East Road, with a north-south length of 470 meters and an east-west width of 470 meters, totaling 12.2 hectares in size.

Located at 29°51′14″N, 121°37′14″E, the site is bounded by Zhongshan Road on the north, railroad tracks on the south, Fuqing Road on the west, and a planned road on the east side. Before being designed, the site and surrounding areas were fragmented farmland with villages and factories that were scheduled for relocation. The terrain was quite flat and the water network was seriously polluted by industry and domestic sewage. The river had been partially straightened and channelized. Factory buildings, together with cement paving and stacking materials left by the rural enterprises, were scattered throughout the site. Domestic and industrial waste filled the river channels. This site was a typical brownfield in the rural-urban fringe of the southern region of China.


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2. 设计目标与策略

这是一个后工业景观的生态重建项目。作为宁波东部新城生态廊道的一部分,本项目的设计旨在构建生态廊道的连续性和完整性,以综合生态系统服务为导向,将景观作为系统解决城市生态环境问题的综合途径,修复水生态环境,净化水体,重建江南河流湿地,营造满足现代都市生活的城市公共绿地,定义城市新区风貌与特色,为建设中的城市带来活力和场所感,增强城市居民的归属感和认同感;同时,在工程建设和后期维护中,以节约为本。这也是委托方对该项目在生态性、社会性、文化性和经济性诸方面的诉求。

为满足上述四个方面的诉求,设计采用了以下策略:


2. Objectives and Design Strategies 

This is a post-industrial landscape ecological reconstruction project. As part of the larger ecological network in the Ningbo Eastern New Town, this project aims to improve the continuity and integrity of the ecological corridor while fulfilling the needs of the communities surrounding the site. Oriented toward holistic ecosystem services, the landscape is intended to function as a comprehensive ecological infrastructure to systematically solve the existing urban ecological and environmental problems. The project was intended to restore the hydrologic environment, clean local water bodies and rebuild riparian wetlands, while creating a public green space to meet the needs of local residents and help shape the identity of the new urban district. The project is intended to bring vitality and a sense of place to the growing city, and to enhance citizens’ sense of belonging and community. The project is also intended to achieve long-term savings in construction and maintenance costs.

To meet these objectives, the project adopted the following four strategies:


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2.1 保留、利用和再生:厂房、树木和水系

首先,对场地中的现状厂房予以保留及利用,保留场地记忆、历史脉络,利用厂房网架结构加以改造,与绿色种植相穿插,形成独特的景观空间和餐饮及休憩场所,使其成为整个项目的地标(这部分尚未建设);原有树木及水系均得以保留,并融入到新的设计中。


2.1 Preservation, reuse and regeneration: factory buildings, trees and water systems

First, the current factory buildings in the site are preserved to maintain the site's historical context. The existing trees and water system are also retained and integrated into the new design. In the future  [or “in a future phase”], the grid structure of the factory buildings will be transformed and interspersed with green planting to form a unique landscape and place for relaxation, making it the landmark of the entire project.



2.2 基于水生态过程的地形设计:梯田、曲岸及岛屿

地形设计以改善水生态过程为主要目标,通过减缓水的流速,截留和净化水体,充分利用生物吸收水体中的养分。整体廊道在原有河道基础上,去硬还生,进行曲化设计,并在水中设立多个岛屿,增加滨水生境的面积;利用城市道路与河面4米的高差,设计多级梯田,将城市地表径流经梯田截留和过滤后再排入河道。为强化公园的水生态净化功能,在场地西侧高处设计了一条引水渠,由北往南将上游河道的污染水体提升入引水渠,水渠蜿蜒穿梭在林中,将水分配到各个湿地梯田湿地单元之中进行过滤净化,排入河中。


2.2 Terrain design based on hydro-ecological processes: terraces, curved banks and islands

Terrain design aims to improve hydro-ecological processes. It slows the water flow, intercepts contaminants and purifies the water body, and makes full use of plants to absorb nutrients from water bodies. Based on the original path of the river, the corridor is ecologically designed in a curvilinear form. The islands are strategically placed to increase the interface between water and land. With an elevation change of 4 meters between the road and the river’s water level, multi-level terraces are designed to intercept and filter the urban surface runoff before it flows into the river. To strengthen the water purification process, a diversion channel was designed on the west side of the site. Contaminated water from the upper reaches of the river is lifted into the diversion channel, which meanders through the forest, distributing water to each terraced wetland for filtration and purification, before the water is ultimately discharged into the river.



2.3 多样化的植被:湿地、农作与树林

与上述地形设计相适应,植被设计主要分为三类:一类是湿地植被,水道两侧和水中广植低维护的水生和湿生植被;在临城市道路一侧,分布浓密的树林,以香樟、银杏、杜英等阔叶树为主的乔木林带,形成公园外围的绿色边界,同时,高大的乔木具有通透的视线,沟通城市街道与生态廊道之间的视觉联系。在湿地中分布的岛屿上,密植的水杉和水松树丛,构成生态廊道中间的绿色体块,起到分割空间的作用,树根深入水体吸收水中营养,净化水质;在湿地与林带之间的梯田之上,轮作丰产的作物和花卉,如春季的油菜花,夏季的向日葵,秋季的硫华菊。它们将乡村田野的时令和节气带到城市中来,给久别农事的新一代城市居民一些乡愁,而给远离自然不暗农事的新生代们一些田园的信息,让千篇一律的城市带来惊喜与动感。


2.3 Diverse vegetation: wetlands, crops and woods

The vegetation design is divided into three types: wetland vegetation, annual crops and meadows, and woods. Low-maintenance aquatic plants and wetland plants are widely used on both sides of the riverbank and in the water. On the side closest to the city, arbor belts dominated by broadleaf trees such as Cinnamomum camphora, Ginkgo biloba, and Elaeocarpus decipiens form a green border between the city and the park while creating a semi-transparent visual connection in between.

On the islands, densely planted Metasequoia and Cyprus groves divide space in the middle of the ecological corridor. The roots of the trees penetrate into water body to absorb nutrients and purify the water.

On the terraces between the wetlands and arbor belts, annual crops and flowers are planted in season, including canola in spring, sunflower in summer and chrysanthemums in autumn. The changing plants bring a seasonal rhythm and sense of change to the city, providing the new generation of urban residents with a chance to reconnect with farming and nature. In contrast with other cities built on stereotyped plans, the urban area in Ningbo Eastern New Town has been refreshed by a pleasant vitality.



2.4 浸入式体验设施:栈道、亭台

连续的步行到和自行车道贯通南北,并与整体生态廊道相连接;一个悬空的栈道系统,连接城市并穿越于湿地、树丛和梯田之中,为浸入式体验提供各种机会;木平台嵌入湿地和梯田之上,或与树丛相穿插,或与风雨亭相组合,点缀于景观基底之上。风雨亭以耐候钢为材料,折叠而成,既是亭子,也是艺术装置,供人休憩、拍照、集会,成为生态廊道中的焦点和观景点,使朴素简洁的湿地和田园景观陡然精神起来。


2.4 Immersive experiential facilities: boardwalk and pavilions

Continuous footpaths and cycling paths run through the ecological corridor and connect with the city’s broader greenway system. A boardwalk system, connecting the city and going through the wetland, groves and terraces, provides various opportunities for immersive experiences. Several wooden platforms are embedded in the wetlands and terraces, or interspersed with trees. The platforms are also combined with pavilions, embellished on the landscape matrix. The pavilions are made of folded corten steel. They are both art installations and shelters, inviting people to relax and linger. They have become the visual highlight of the ecological corridor.


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3. 建成效果:提供综合生态系统服务

宁波生态走廊三期(中山路-百丈东路)于2016年建成,其雨涝滞蓄、生态净化、韧性防洪等生态海绵的功能已充分彰显;除了作为市民日常休憩的好去处外,其季节性的田园景观和花季,为城市带来惊喜,深受市民欢迎。每当油菜花、向日葵等开放之际,这里便成为城市居民最受欢迎的休闲地,为城市带来无限活力。作为整体生态廊道的重要组成部分, 2019年获“浙江最美绿道”荣誉。


3. Accomplishment:Providing holistic ecosystem services

Phase III of the Ningbo Ecological Corridor was completed in 2016.The waterway has been revived with rich native habitats, and functions as a flood-resilient green sponge that can cleanse the contaminated water. The seasonal agricultural landscape and rotating meadows provide a sense of surprise to the city’s citizens. Although local residents intensively use the corridor year-round, the high time is when the canola, sunflowers and other flowers are in blossom. Then, hundreds and thousands of local residents and tourists from afar are attracted to the corridor, bringing a sense of infinite vitality to the city. As an important part of the overall ecological corridor, the park was named “Most Beautiful Greenway in Zhejiang Province" by the Urban and Rural Construction Department of Zhejiang Province in 2019.



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