武汉良友红坊文化艺术社区景观改造 | UAO瑞拓设计
The predecessor of Wuhan Liangyou Red Town Cultural Art Community was an old factory building in the 1960s, and it was used as a material market in the 1990s. The process of urbanization has gradually marginalized this factory area within the third ring road of Hankou. Over grown with weeds, dilapidated buildings, drainage system blocked and other problems turned this place into original urban "brownfield", and it also makes this node looks like an urban scar, which is in urgent need of a "surgery"; however, whether we are adopting a method that completely overthrows and rebuilds or "dermabrasion" like some old street reconstruction-style ? These two models are common used methods for quick success and quick profit in the current state of urban renewal and transformation.
In 2018, Shanghai Hongfang Group took over this area and determined to transform it into an office park for cultural and creative place. UAO was commissioned by Hongfang to renovate the park's landscape design and core building ADC Art Design Center.
When I led my team to see the site for the first time, the original red brick factory building, sloping red tile roof, internal pine truss, and typical garden facilities of the 1980s (the concrete pavilion in the shape of mushroom, dolphin sculptures in the pool), the towering red brick chimneys and water towers also impressed me. These objects were popular in "unit compound" in the 1970s and 1980s. When it appeared in the core area of a modern metropolis, it creating a sense of distance inexplicably, and at the same time it brought UAO's post-70s-80s designer’s kind of “familiarity ": remind us of the “unit compound” life.
This sense of distance and familiarity of the factory compound became the starting point for the conception of this landscape transformation—and also answered the beginning of the article. We can neither use replacement nor “beauty surgery” .we would like to make people who come to this place feel if they are returning to their childhood, but under closer inspection they recognized it is truly a contemporary art environment; the distance produced by this contrast, And the continued cultural heritage of the factory area can provide a new way for the current vigorous urban renewal, we call it: "Nourishing and Renewing Technique".
The overall layout of the factory area is a typical row-type factory layout, but each factory building is constructed in different eras: there are red bricks, single-story wood truss and tile roofs in the 1960s; there are multi-layer brick-concrete structures and terrazzo in the 1980s; factory buildings with tiles or small mosaics in the 1990s, and temporary buildings built by the tenants themselves. These single-story or multi-story buildings are divided into blocks of relatively large areas by checkerboard shape roads.
Although the density of the site is generally homogeneous, there is also a relatively large open space in two areas of the site: one is the central square area formed by the original small amusement park and the large car parking lot after entering the main entrance, and the other is the unloading area in front of the original "chestnut warehouse" on the northeast side of the site. Later，we found that the central square area carried the function of parking large trucks , with heavy concrete foundation and large space; and the area in front of the chestnut warehouse , Because it was an underground cold storage, so the site survived.
Because the chestnut warehouse is a cold storage, it has completely different characteristics from other buildings in the factory area. The facade covered with gray washed stone and the solid wall of the elevator machine room on the main facade faces the axis of the main entrance.
I naturally conceived an axis from the main entrance to the main wall of the old chestnut warehouse. This axis strung the main entrance and two main open spaces. Because it is an oblique axis, it also divides the central square area into two. A triangular site: Located on the north side of the triangle, it is the original garden. After filling the small garden pond and retaining the tall native plants, it was transformed into an ecological parking lot.
The oblique axis is 3 meters wide and paved with red bricks; the starting point is at the gate, and the back of the triangular landscape wall of red bricks is covered with soil, forming a shelter for the entrance parking lot. The end goes straight to the large lawn in front of the chestnut factory warehouse. A building crosses in the middle.
The plan of the triangular land on the south side of the oblique axis does not directly reach the ideal state—because every designer cannot restrain his inner impulse to “impose the site design”. In the original plan, the triangular site on the south side was designed as a borderless pool, hoping to see the reflection of the surrounding old buildings in the middle of the site.
But this scheme is actually a "reflection-style" show design centered on the designer's self. I always feel that it is not so appropriate, but to be honest: I am not willing to be a show;
In the subsequent process of changing the concrete square in the demolished factory area to greening, the sonorous sound of the excavator and the sharply broken concrete blocks gave me another inspiration: that is to keep the heavy concrete that originally parked the heavy truck. , But how to retain so that the viewer can know the design intent of this "retention"?
The optimization of the central square plan gradually became clear as the Red Square Party A moved the "Hua Cao Ting" in Shanghai to Wuhan and rebuilt it.
Huacao Pavilion is an artistic landscape structure in collaboration with star architect Liu Yichun and well-known artist Zhan Wang. Several stainless steel sheets meaning "Taihu Stone" support the weather-resistant steel roof, and the roof is covered with soil and planted with flowers and plants; the ingenious idea lies in the connection between the stainless steel sheet and the roof. The design of the weather-resistant steel plate on the roof through the reverse beam makes the lightness of the weather-resistant steel cantilevered and the heavy covering of the roof produce an unstable contrast. All designs use industrial sense and plants to contrast and symbiosis; use design techniques to form a light and thin sense of sight, to "ridicule" the pediatrics of the earth's gravity.
What kind of venue can we use to carry this "heavy weight" artistic landscape mechanics structure?
The new design starts from the shape of the supporting steel plate of the flower and grass pavilion, topological it to the ground, and applies the irregular cutting technique to the concrete on the ground; this cutting technique also naturally answers the previous question and brings the viewer I understood that this concrete was kept from the original site.
The gaps of different widths and narrows after irregular cutting, backfilling and planting of sod naturally extend the design of the flower pavilion, and also make the flower pavilion feel like a "new and old" art that has existed in the site for many years Product.
The alignment of the Huacao Pavilion, in addition to being in the center of the square, is on the same axis as the A-shaped entrance of the ADC Art Design Center, the core building of the UAO-designed park. The central optical axis of ADC is also opposite to the center of the Huacao Pavilion. It also reflects the advantages of integrated interior design of architectural landscape.
The creation of intimacy is indispensable to the use, preservation and transformation of old objects on the site;
The first is to preserve: preserve the red brick chimneys, water towers, old wooden trusses and tiled roofs, preserve chronological sculptures, such as mushroom pavilions and baiji sculptures.
Secondly, using reconstruction, the mushroom pavilion was implanted with neon tubes, the baiji sculpture was relocated in the container, and the missing part of the baiji sculpture was filled with resin. A new work with a sense of history and time was born; including The red bricks removed from the site are recombined into flower beds, scenery walls, and paving in the factory area; also because the area around the central square is divided into pedestrian areas, the original damaged motor vehicle lanes are no longer used, and the concrete pavement is separated by joints. After wind and rain, there are already many cracks. We cut the cracks with a cutting machine and re-layed the red bricks, forming a kind of intimacy of material retention and contrast.
The preservation of old objects, of course, is indispensable to the preservation of historical slogans on the walls, but this superficial approach, in front of a higher level of expression of "reusing old objects", crashed into dregs.
After the project was basically completed at the end of 2019, Red Square Party A continued to carry more outdoor art works from Shanghai, and gradually filled the entire park into a state of art everywhere, which further deepened the perception. Sense of distance.
"This kind of fully exploring the characteristics of the site, the limited renewal and reconstruction of the site, and the proper reuse of old materials are actually the "spiritual reconstruction" of the original site characteristics. The sense of distance and at the same time. I think we provides a more suitable path for the renewal and transformation of the old industrial heritage."
——李涛 LI Tao