大同古长城文化遗产廊道规划设计 | 北京林业大学风景园林规划设计研究院
The Great Wall is a world cultural heritage, and a treasure of human civilization. The planning of Datong Ancient Great Wall Cultural Heritage Corridor has constructed a linear heritage corridor of 258km in length and 186km2 in area, which can realize relics protection, ecological remediation, cultural tourism, village revitalization and many other goals.
Revitalizing the Great Wall
The Datong Ancient Great Wall was mainly built in the Ming Dynasty (AD 1368-1644), and despite of all vicissitudes over history, its main parts have managed to remain till today. In 2017, the Datong Municipal Government proposed the conception of building the cultural heritage corridor of the ancient Great Wall.
Historical milestones of Datong Ancient Great Wall
Since ancient times, Datong sit at the boundary of nomadic peoples and agricultural peoples, and the Great Wall served as a defense system built up by agricultural peoples. With the fading of the threats posed by nomadic peoples, the Great Wall has gradually declined day by day as well.
Challenges and goals
The Datong Ancient Great Wall heritage has been constantly subjected to erosions and damages, and its surroundings now face deterioration of ecological environment, stagnation of tourism and poverty of residents.
A team of experts covering a number of related specialties was set up. The team conducted detailed investigation and data collection on the site, and went deep into villages and communities to collect opinions.
Distribution status of cultural heritage
Through the analysis of the cultural heritage of the Ancient Great Wall, it is found that the high class heritage is mostly distributed within the range of 1000m from the Great Wall, which provides a basis for determining the spatial pattern of the heritage corridor.
Based on the distribution and conservation status of the Great Wall and the five types of relics nearby, the planning has divided the spatial pattern for ancient Great Wall heritage protection into four levels, so as to realize the graded protection and development of the Great Wall heritage.
A region for intensive and effective ecological remediation is determined. The planning takes local native vegetation community as blueprints, constructs artificial vegetation community requiring low-maintenance in area of ecological remediation, and provides habitats for animals in each community.
Establishment of Approaches——Define the core area
The cultural heritages and natural resources along the Great Wall have been assessed and rated to determine 12 areas with concentrated high-quality resources as scenic areas for key construction as the core attractions of the entire heritage corridor.
Tourism facility system
A sightseeing road & bike lane system, 255km in total length, will be built to connect the Great Wall into an organic whole; a flexible belt-like green corridor will be constructed on the exterior; 12 service centers attached to the scenic areas will be set up along the road to create a continuous system of facilities for tourism services.
Scenic area planning——Desheng fortress as an example
To protect the historical features of the Great Wall, the vegetation restoration and tourism facilities in the scenic areas have been carefully considered. Based on a comprehensive analysis on ecological sensitivity, relics distribution, building suitability and other elements, a set of minimum interference schemes is established.
Scenic area birdview——Desheng fortress as an example
Through recovery of natural topography, such vegetation community with unique regional features could be created. A system of scenic area services and interpretation will be built, consisting of sightseeing trails, tourist service centers, leisure & recreation, dining & accommodation and other service facilities, supplemented by tour guides, and popularization facilities for culture and natural science.
Scenic area perspective——Desheng fortress as an example
The ecological environment of scenic areas is restored, and the layout, materials, colors and forms of all service facilities all come from the Great Wall and its surrounding areas and are blended in a low-key manner into the heritage environment. what’s more, the technique of Augmented Reality was introduced to reproduce the history scenes of the Great Wall.
By means of fiscal subsidies from government, support by scientific research institution, operation of scales and so forth, rural people will be guided on the plantation to increase production yield and their income; villagers will be guided to develop folk tourism and introduce developers for investment and operation, in order to lift the local rural people out of poverty and make them better off.
Current Achievements——Ecological Remediation
After a year of construction, the project of ecological remediation with a total investment of 214 million USD has been basically completed, nearly 150 million trees have been planted on barren mountains, ravines, valleys and plains, creating a beautiful ecological barrier for the Great Wall.
Current Achievements——Tourism facility system
The sightseeing road along the Great Wall have been partially put into use, some scenic area have been opened to tourists, the blooming apricot flowers and the charming Great Wall have attracted a large number of visitors.
The planning has fully invigorated the derived benefits of cultural heritages, brought a balance to the benefits in a variety of aspects of protection and development, culture and tourism, industry and ecology etc., It’s foreseeable that this particular area will be revitalized as a result of the protection and flexible development of the Great Wall.