首页  /  项目   /  景观  /  正文

2019ASLA通用设计类荣誉奖:华盛顿大学下雷尼尔维斯塔与步行桥景观设计 | GGN

JardinSurLeToit 2019-10-16
原创
  • 项目名称:
    华盛顿大学下雷尼尔维斯塔景观设计
  • 项目地点:
    美国西雅图
  • 项目规模:
    6.3英亩(约2.4公顷)
  • 设计公司:
    GGN
  • 委托方:
    华盛顿大学
  • 建成时间:
    2015
  • 所获奖项:
    2019年ASLA专业奖通用设计类荣誉奖

“位于西雅图市的华盛顿大学下雷尼尔维斯塔项目为太平洋西北岸最壮丽的景色建立了框架。设计降低了破坏视线通达性的道路,并在其上建设拥有多式联运枢纽的高架桥。通过重整地形、重新组合、重新设计它的宽阔草坪,项目修复了奥姆斯特德兄弟于1909年提出的校园和雷尼尔山之间的视觉联系。”

"The Lower Rainier Vista project on the campus of the University of Washington in Seattle creates the framework for one of the most spectacular views in the Pacific Northwest. The design lowered a road that disrupted the viewshed and created a land bridge over it that covers a multimodal transportation hub. By regrading, reconfiguring, and reimagining its vast lawns, this project has repaired the visual connection between the campus and Mount Rainier first conceived by the Olmsted Brothers in 1909."

——2019年ASLA奖评委



项目概述

华盛顿大学下雷尼尔维斯塔项目通过多种交通节点的交汇,拓展并完善了奥姆斯特德兄弟对纪念性校园轴线的历史愿景。设计借鉴了哥特式学院的风格,利用维斯塔精细的地形来框景,融入现代化设施,并增加无障碍设施。新建的高架桥促进了哈士奇体育场、华盛顿大学医学中心以及校园中心的新建轻轨车站间的步行、骑行、公交和汽车等多式联运。


160825  wasla lrv project images1.jpg


项目详情

位于西雅图市华盛顿大学的雷尼尔维斯塔长约半英里,原为1904年阿拉斯加-尤肯-太平洋博览会会场的主轴线,它将椭圆形布局的校园与于雷尼尔山的壮美景色连接起来,很快成为这座西海岸大学与其自然环境背景相联系的标志。


07+GGN+RainierVista+BeforeAfter+01.jpg


在随后的一个世纪中,随着城市扩张和设施的发展,雷尼尔维斯塔作为校园入口和漫步休闲空间的定位开始面临挑战。随着维斯塔南部地势较低的区域建设地下车库,以及周围主干道的扩建,校园的边缘变得越来越模糊,最终成为一片空置的、停满汽车的空间。


1.jpg

▲场地历史:奥姆斯特德兄弟的设计图并没有展现轴线末端以外的地区,经过一个世纪的都市扩张,这一区域由于不是校园的正式入口而被孤立。新的轻轨车站推动了该区域的重新设计。


新建的地区轻轨车站建设计划为维斯塔项目带来了机遇。下雷尼尔维斯塔项目的提出,正是为了借助这条历史性轴线,将轻轨车站与公交车、自行车道和人行道连接起来。新下雷尼尔维斯塔的设计由五个政府组织协作完成,包括华盛顿大学、华盛顿州交通运输部、海湾公共交通局、金县地铁交通局以及西雅图交通运输部。设计团队从重建维斯塔轴线的设计愿景着手,在历时五年的设计过程中,将这一核心元素与利益相关者复杂的空间和政策要求相交织。为实现重建维斯塔轴线的宏伟体验的愿景,维斯塔成为了多种现代化设施系统的纽带,为步行,或乘坐轻轨、公交车,或骑行,或自驾前来的人们提供服务。


11.jpg

▲雷尼尔维斯塔轴线鸟瞰图

9.jpg

▲概念草图


设计团队利用项目的巨大规模,在景观中清晰呈现出下雷尼尔维斯塔轴线。轴线采用高架桥的形式,跨越了一条主要的公交路线,成为校园南部的核心。同时,乘坐轻轨来到华盛顿大学的步行者和骑行者们,以及沿西雅图区域性骑行道而来的骑行者们,都将在这里相遇。为了提供无缝的行人体验,设计将与高架桥相交的道路高度下降了20英尺(约6米)。下沉道路的两侧墙面使用石笼工法,其中的石块来自当地采石场。高架桥简单的沙漏形式一方面与大学早期的哥特复兴式建筑风格相呼应,同时也为下方狭窄道路上行驶的公交车提供空间。


3.jpg

▲俯瞰步行桥:桥将轴线的两端连接起来,道路下沉,使校园与轻轨车站之间的步行道路无缝连接

4.jpg

设计理念:高架桥的“镜像拱门”形式借鉴了华盛顿大学罗马学院式的建筑风格,内部逻辑则是用交织的流线来激活空间。

160825  wasla lrv project images.jpg

160825  wasla lrv project images2.jpg

▲人行高架桥的设计解决了一系列技术问题,如减低造价、减缓道路坡度,维持地铁线缆畅通,以及减少下方道路上的阴影等。


沿微微倾斜的Vista延伸的大草坪成为了华盛顿大学的“前廊”,人们在这里聚会、休闲、举办活动,小路和小型广场将Vista与周围环境连接起来。草坪和Vista的高差营造出视错觉效果,当人们从校园外望向校内的喷泉时,两者之间的距离仿佛比实际要近许多。此外,这一高差巧妙地设置地平线的位置,使人们沿着观景轴线远眺雷尼尔山时,Montlake大道上的繁忙交通会被弱化。史蒂芬路与高架桥之间的高差巧妙地形成了岬状和碗状的空间,带来多样化的体验,为不同的活动提供了场地。


10.jpg

▲从人行桥眺望Drumheller喷泉。地形带来的视错觉让人觉得与喷泉的距离比实际要近。

5.jpg

▲改造前从轴线望向雷尼尔山,人们的视线被繁忙的道路交通吸引

6.jpg

▲改造后,地形微妙起伏、不断延伸的场地平面将人们的视线引向雷尼尔山,人们可以利用轴线中的小型广场来穿越草地、休憩,或拍摄雷尼尔山的壮丽景色。


下雷尼尔维斯塔中的植被多为本土物种,它们经过精心设计,以满足地下停车场屋顶的荷载限制,并让该区域融入整个校园的环境氛围。此外,它们还建立了与雷尼尔山自然景色之间的联系。那些高达的古老树木在建设中被妥善保护起来,构成了维斯塔轴线的森林框架。为了将来的植被演替,项目也种植了新的树木。维斯塔的南端要求植被能够适应较强的阳光直射,未来随着树冠的生长,将变得更加繁茂。


14.jpg

▲从人行高架桥眺望新建轻轨车站和哈士奇体育场,植被为下雷尼尔维斯塔营造了欢迎的氛围,并与标志性的森林相连。

13.jpg

▲从Montlake大道眺望Drumheller喷泉

15.jpg

▲傍晚远眺雷尼尔山


设计方案通过照明、城市家具、维护方式等措施,精心保留了维斯塔开放而整洁的体验。简单的预制混凝土长椅整齐排列,构建集聚空间。环境光的强度经过专业计算,以避免在夜间过度照亮空间。照明设计包括巧妙设置在森林背景中的柱灯,以及打亮道路并强化高架桥弯曲轮廓的隐藏式轨道光带。


7.jpg

▲改造前在轴线上眺望Drumheller喷泉。此时的地形与交通流线主要为汽车服务,而不是行人。

8.jpg

▲改造后在轴线上眺望Drumheller喷泉。新的地形和交通流线主要为行人和自行车服务,设施都隐藏起来了。


新的下雷尼尔维斯塔为华盛顿大学打开了新的篇章。这一现代城市校园中的项目,为调和历史遗迹、大型交通设施和人尺度空间体验之间的关系提供了宝贵的经验。


2.jpg

▲从轻轨车站望向步行高架桥


Project Statement


The University of Washington's Lower Rainier Vista Project extends and completes the Olmsted Brothers' historic vision for a monumental campus axis within the intersection of many transportation modes. The design references Collegiate Gothic forms and uses fine-tuned grading of the Vista to frame views, integrate modern infrastructure, and provide new ADA connections. A new land bridge facilitates multimodal integration of pedestrians, cyclists, buses, and automobiles between the new light rail station at Husky Stadium, the University of Washington Medical Center, and the University campus heart.


Project Narrative


The Rainier Vista at the University of Washington in Seattle was originally designed as the spine of the 1904 Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition fairgrounds. Linking the pre-existing campus oval plan to the inspiring view of Mount Rainier, the half-mile long Rainier Vista quickly became the iconic representation of this West Coast University's connection to its dramatic natural setting.


Over the subsequent century of urban growth and infrastructural expansion, the Rainier Vista's role as a campus gateway and a place for strolling and relaxation increasingly came under conflicting pressures. The construction of a parking garage beneath the Vista's southern or "lower" extent, in conjunction with expansion of surrounding arterial roads, led to the eventual blurring of the campus edge into a largely vacant, vehicle-dominated place.


The opportunity to complete the Vista emerged alongside plans for a new regional light rail station. The Lower Rainier Vista project was conceived to connect the new light rail hub with enhanced bus, bike, and pedestrian routes to the campus through the historic axis. Five government agencies collaborated to realize the new Lower Rainier Vista design, including: the University of Washington, the Washington State Department of Transportation, Sound Transit, King County Metro Transit, and the Seattle Department of Transportation. Starting with a strong design vision for reclaiming the Vista's axis, the design team used this primary element, over a five-year design process, to weave together the complex spatial and political priorities of the many stakeholders. The design vision was to re-establish the grandeur and experience of the original Vista. It has become a new nexus of multiple, contemporary infrastructural systems, serving people arriving by foot, light rail, bus, bicycle, and car.


The design team leveraged the monumental scale of the project to re-establish the Lower Rainier Vista's axis as a legible "object" in the landscape. Extending over a major bus route via a land bridge, the axis anchors the southern extent of the campus. It also serves as a point of intersection between cyclists and pedestrians arriving from the light rail, as another group of cyclists is passing through on Seattle's primary regional trail. To accomplish the seamless pedestrian experience of a land bridge, the elevation of the roadway bisecting the Vista's axis was lowered by twenty feet. The new sides of the carved roadway were expressed as 'cut earth' through a language of gabion walls filled with local quarry spalls. The simple hourglass form of the bridge itself connects back to the Gothic Revival heritage of much of the University's early architecture, while also allowing clearance for buses passing beneath the narrowed center.


The newly planted lawns along the gently sloping Vista function as 'front porches' to the University: places for gathering, relaxation, and events, while connecting paths and small plazas link the Vista to its surroundings. The grading of the lawn and Vista creates the illusion of a foreshortened distance from outside of campus looking toward the fountain, making the fountain appear closer than it really is. The grading also uses careful placement of horizons to obscure Montlake Boulevard traffic from key views of Mt. Rainier. Between Stevens Way and the land bridge, the grading subtly forms a promontory and a bowl to create a variety of experiences and to encourage different activities within the axis.


Native planting, carefully calibrated to work with the load restrictions posed by the existing below-grade parking garage, draws the Lower Rainier Vista into the broader campus character. It also extends to the natural connection presented by the view of Mount Rainier beyond. Heritage trees, significant in stature and carefully protected during construction, compose the axis' forest frame. New trees were interplanted for future succession. The south end of the Vista required plants that will thrive in direct sunlight, but also flourish in the future as the canopy of new trees develops.


The design was careful to preserve the open, uncluttered experience of the Vista by utilizing lighting, furnishing, and maintenance solutions that supported this vision. Simple pre-cast concrete benches align to create gathering spaces. Ambient light levels were expertly calculated, so as to not over-light the space at night. The lighting design consists of discreet pole lights placed against the backdrop of the forest frame, and a hidden lean rail light source that both illuminates the walking surface and outlines the curving silhouette of the land bridge.


The new Lower Rainier Vista adds a meaningful chapter to the University's campus legacy. The project offers valuable lessons in reconciling the competing interests of a major historical monument, large transportation infrastructure, and human-scaled experience within the modern urban campus.


版权声明:本文由作者翻译自ASLA,版权归原作者所有。如转载、链接、转贴或以其它方式使用本稿,需注明“文章来源:景观中国网”。

投稿邮箱:[email protected]

联系电话:010-62747757


打赏
  • 给Ta打个赏

1

发表评论

热门评论

相关项目